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Table of Contents for
Volume 23 Issue 2
February 2018

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124Biomass smoke COPD: A phenotype or a different disease?
Jennifer L Perret and Michael J Abramson
126Tissue is the issue to confirm benign disease at pleuroscopy in lung cancer
David Fielding
128Emerging role of viral and bacterial co-infection in early childhood
Paul T King and Jim Buttery
Respiratory Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region
130MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia
Yudong Yin and Richard G Wunderink
138Determining best outcomes from community-acquired pneumonia and how to achieve them
Jane Hadfield and Lesley Bennett
148Pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Derek L Tran, Edmund M T Lau, David S Celermajer, Glen M Davis and Rachael Cordina
160Unexpandable lung from pleural disease
John T Huggins, Fabien Maldonado, Amit Chopra, Najib Rahman and Richard Light
Asthma and Allergy
168Changes in the breath sound spectrum during methacholine inhalation in children with asthma
Hideyuki Tabata, Mayumi Enseki, Mariko Nukaga, Kota Hirai, Shinichi Matsuda, Hiroyuki Furuya, Masahiko Kato and Hiroyuki Mochizuki

We evaluated the breath sound parameters before methacholine inhalation challenge, after methacholine inhalation challenge and after β2 agonist inhalation in 49 children with atopic asthma. Spectrum curve indices indicate bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation. These parameters may play a role in the assessment of airway narrowing in asthmatic children.

176Urinary desmosine is associated with emphysema severity and frequent exacerbation in patients with COPD
Changhwan Kim, Yousang Ko, Su Hee Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Jae Seung Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Jin Hwa Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong Yong Lim, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joon Beom Seo, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee and Yong Bum Park

Previous studies have revealed inconsistencies as to the association between emphysema severity and desmosines released due to matrix degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study suggests that urinary desmosines, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, are useful for predicting emphysema severity and frequent exacerbation in patients with COPD.

Editor's choice
Non-invasive ventilation during cycle exercise training in patients with chronic respiratory failure on long-term ventilatory support: A randomized controlled trial
Michele Vitacca, Dicle Kaymaz, Barbara Lanini, Guido Vagheggini, Pinar Ergün, Francesco Gigliotti, Nicolino Ambrosino and Mara Paneroni

Effort tolerance was evaluated in 42 patients with chronic respiratory failure on long-term home non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and long-term oxygen therapy. The use of NIV during 20 cycle training sessions resulted in additional improvement in cycle endurance time, but not in 6-min walking distance.

Cystic Fibrosis
190Rescue therapy within the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry: An exploration of predictors of intravenous antibiotic use amongst adults with CF
Zhe Hui Hoo, Martin J Wildman, Rachael Curley, Stephen J Walters and Michael J Campbell

Intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic is an important treatment option in cystic fibrosis and is also a marker of pulmonary exacerbations. Our study showed that previous-year i.v. use is a strong predictor of current-year i.v. use. This finding could help clinicians to identify people most at risk of future exacerbation.

Environmental and Occupational Lung Disease
Editor's choice
Small airway disease: A different phenotype of early stage COPD associated with biomass smoke exposure
Dongxing Zhao, Yumin Zhou, Changbin Jiang, Zhuxiang Zhao, Fang He and Pixin Ran

This is the first quantitative study of early stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with biomass smoke exposure. Compared with smoking-associated COPD, there are differences in small airway dysfunction, emphysema, air trapping, basement membrane thickness and immune cell influx. This suggests a different phenotype with features of small airway disease.

Interstitial Lung Disease
206Prognostic significance of Glasgow prognostic score in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Hye S Kang, Kang W Cho, Soon S Kwon and Yong H Kim

The present study is one of the first studies to investigate the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) as a potential predictive factor of clinical outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, who experience acute exacerbation requiring hospital admission. Higher GPS, eosinopenia and partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio were independent predictors of mortality.

Pleural Disease
213Non-specific pleuritis in patients with active malignancy
Erik Vakil, David Ost, Macarena R Vial, John Stewart, Mona G Sarkiss, Rodolfo C Morice, Roberto F Casal, Georgie A Eapen and Horiana B Grosu

Non-specific pleuritis diagnosed on pleuroscopy in patients with active malignancy and pleural effusion represents a diagnostic dilemma. We studied outcomes in 199 patients with active malignancy who underwent pleuroscopy. The sensitivity of pleuroscopy was high and most patients without malignancy had non-specific pleuritis, which was later categorized after clinical review.

Respiratory Infections
220Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the nasopharynx is associated with increased severity during respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt and Peter D Sly

High loads of bacteria colonizing the upper respiratory tract are often observed during paediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. The present study identified an association between co-detection of RSV and Streptococcus pneumoniae and more severe disease, suggesting the bacteria has a pathogenic role in these young children.

228Letter from Singapore
Sanjay H Chotirmall and Mariko Siyue Koh
230Impact of gastric reflux on asthma in clinical practice
Giorgio Ciprandi, Fabio Gallo and Matteo Gelardi
232CT versus thoracic ultrasound for discriminating uncomplicated and complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions
Charalampos Varsamas, Alexandros Kalkanis and Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
232CT versus thoracic ultrasound for discriminating uncomplicated and complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions – Reply
José M Porcel