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Table of Contents for
Volume 22 Issue 7
October 2017

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1239Where to start when treating COPD?
Peter M.A. Calverley
1241Unravelling the impact of early life exposures on lung structure and function in the developmental origins of asthma
Christopher D. Pascoe
1243Partitioning strength exercises as an alternative training modality for patients with COPD
Anouk W. Vaes
1245Real-time visual-feedback mask-fitting during non-invasive ventilation: A 'technological' gain over 'human' sensing?
Antonello Nicolini, Raffaele Scala and Maurizio A. Cavalleri
1247Mortality prediction in community-acquired pneumonia: Simplifying reliable tools may be worth it
Diego Lopez-Mendoza
1249Connecting insomnia, sleep apnoea and depression
Michael A. Grandner and Atul Malhotra
1251Dissecting the benefits of long-term non-invasive ventilation in patients with distinct neuromuscular disorders
Matthias Boentert
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
1253Reviewing the relationship between OSA and cognition: Where do we go from here?
Romola S. Bucks, Michelle Olaithe, Ivana Rosenzweig and Mary J. Morrell
Seeking Innovative Solutions in Severe Asthma
1262Multidimensional assessment of severe asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Vanessa L. Clark, Peter G. Gibson, Grayson Genn, Sarah A. Hiles, Ian D. Pavord and Vanessa M. McDonald
Respiratory Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region
1276Pneumonia in the developing world: Characteristic features and approach to management
Stephen J. Aston
1288The respiratory threat posed by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano and Oriol Sibila
1300A clinical approach to the threat of emerging influenza viruses in the Asia-Pacific region
David S.C. Hui, Nelson Lee and Paul K.S. Chan
1313Long-acting beta2-agonists versus long-acting muscarinic antagonists in patients with stable COPD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Wang-Chun Chen, Chi-Hsien Huang, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Inn-Wen Chong, Kuo-An Chu, Yung-Che Chen, Jong-Rung Tsai, Cheng-Hung Lee and Yu-Feng Wei
Asthma and Allergy
1320Lung function in relation to farm dwelling and farming activities in rural dwelling children
Lakshmi Balakrishnan, Donna Rennie, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa, Chandima Karunanayake, Louise Hagel and Joshua Lawson

We investigated pulmonary function in a rural paediatric Canadian population of farm and non-farm dwelling children. Overall, lung function in both populations was excellent with slightly better lung function in children living on farms.

1329Increased heterogeneity of airway calibre in adult rats after hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction
Kimberley C.W. Wang, Jude S. Morton, Sandra T. Davidge, Alexander N. Larcombe, Alan L. James, Graham M. Donovan and Peter B. Noble

Intrauterine growth-restricted individuals have an increased risk of asthma development. The reason for this association is not known. This study used a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction to show persisting structural changes to the airway that has potential implications for bronchoconstriction and disease susceptibility.

1336Does limb partitioning and positioning affect acute cardiorespiratory responses during strength exercises in patients with COPD?
Priscila Robles, Tamara Araujo, Dina Brooks, Karl Zabjek, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Susan Marzolini, Roger Goldstein and Sunita Mathur

Acute cardiorespiratory responses to short bouts of strength exercises may not be affected by the number of limbs engaged; however, responses are greater when arm exercises are performed overhead. This information can assist in the design of upper extremity strength training programmes for patients with COPD.

Critical Care
1343Randomized crossover trial of a pressure sensing visual feedback system to improve mask fitting in noninvasive ventilation
Anne-Kathrin Brill, Mohammad Moghal, Mary J. Morrell and Anita K. Simonds

In a simulated mask-fitting scenario for noninvasive ventilation, real-time visual feedback on pressure exerted over the nasal bridge led to a significantly lower pressure on the face without increase in air leak. The feedback technology improved mask-fitting skills of trained and untrained healthcare professionals.

Environmental and Occupational Lung Disease
1350Histological variability and consequences in chronic bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Junichi Ochi, Yoshio Ohtani, Tamiko Takemura, Takumi Akashi, Tomoya Tateishi, Yasunari Miyazaki, Naohiko Inase and Yasuyuki Yoshizawa

Spatial histopathological variability and temporal changes of pathology in chronic bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (BRHP) was evaluated. Wide variability in histopathological features was characteristic. Our case series suggests that initial fibrotic nonspecific patterns can later change to bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia patterns or usual interstitial pneumonia patterns at autopsy.

Interstitial Lung Disease
1357Direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fibre treatment for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia
Haruhiko Furusawa, Makiko Sugiura, Chieko Mitaka and Naohiko Inase

We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of polymyxin B-immobilized fibre column-direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) treatment for patients with acute exacerbation (AE) of interstitial pneumonia. The results showed that PMX-DHP may improve the prognosis of patients with AE when inducted in the early phase of the exacerbation, especially in patients with dermatomyositis.

1363High-dose prednisolone after intravenous methylprednisolone improves prognosis of acute exacerbation in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias
Toru Arai, Kazunobu Tachibana, Chikatoshi Sugimoto, Yasushi Inoue, Sayoko Tokura, Tomohisa Okuma, Masanori Akira, Masanori Kitaichi, Seiji Hayashi and Yoshikazu Inoue

Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that an initial prednisolone (PSL) dose ≥ 0.6 mg/kg is a significant factor for a good prognosis in acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias without management with positive pressure ventilation. Hence, such doses of PSL may be recommended when commencing treatment.

Editor's choice
Serum YKL-40 is a reliable biomarker for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Francesco Bonella, Xiaoping Long, Xuan He, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Matthias Griese, Josune Guzman and Ulrich Costabel

We evaluated the role of YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein produced by macrophages and epithelial cells, as a biomarker to assess disease activity and outcome in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). YKL-40 was elevated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of PAP patients, and correlated with respiratory impairment and disease outcome.

Lung Cancer
1379Modified GAP index for prediction of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in non-small cell lung cancer
Haruki Kobayashi, Shota Omori, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Kazushige Wakuda, Akira Ono, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Masahiro Endo and Toshiaki Takahashi

The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of incidence of IPF (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)-AE (acute exacerbation) and its prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and IPF. The present study suggests that modified gender, age and physiology mGAP index score and stage may predict IPF-AE and its prognosis in patients with NSCLC and IPF.

Pulmonary Vascular Disease
Editor's choice
Clinical characteristics and survival of systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary hypertension and elevated wedge pressure: Observations from the PHAROS cohort
Matthew R. Lammi, Lesley A. Saketkoo, Jessica K. Gordon, Paula Lauto, Karen Fagan, Virginia D. Steen and on behalf of the PHAROS Investigators

We analysed data for 59 patients with systemic sclerosis-pulmonary hypertension (PH) and an elevated wedge pressure and found that there was no difference in clinical outcomes between those with post-capillary PH and combined pre- and post-capillary PH. The 6-min walk distance was a predictor of death in this group.

1393CT-determined pulmonary artery to aorta ratio as a predictor of elevated pulmonary artery pressure and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Mitsuaki Yagi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Masahiko Ando, Tomoki Kimura, Kensuke Kataoka, Taiki Furukawa, Atsushi Suzuki, Takeshi Johkoh and Yoshinori Hasegawa

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the aorta (PA:A) was significantly correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP). In multivariate analysis, the PA:A, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) % predicted were independent predictors of mPAP. Moreover, a PA:A > 0.9 was associated with a worse prognosis.

Respiratory Infections
1400Functional status and mortality prediction in community-acquired pneumonia
Kyeongman Jeon, Hongseok Yoo, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hye Yun Park, Won-Jung Koh, Gee Young Suh and Eliseo Guallar

Premorbid functional status (FS) was independently associated with mortality in unselected patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In addition, adding premorbid FS to the CRB-65 (confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age 65) score showed a significantly and clinically relevant improvement in the predictive ability of CRB-65.

Sleep and Ventilation
1407Co-morbid OSA and insomnia increases depression prevalence and severity in men
Carol J. Lang, Sarah L. Appleton, Andrew Vakulin, R. Doug McEvoy, Gary A. Wittert, Sean A. Martin, Peter G. Catcheside, Nicholas A. Antic, Leon Lack and Robert J. Adams

We investigated the prevalence and clinical profile of previously undiagnosed co-morbid obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insomnia symptoms (COMISA) in men. Men with COMISA have a higher prevalence, and severity, of depressive symptoms than men with OSA or insomnia symptoms alone. This has implications when planning how to identify and treat COMISA in the community.

1416Effects of 1-month withdrawal of ventilatory support in hypercapnic myotonic dystrophy type 1
Fergal J. O'Donoghue, Jean-Christian Borel, Yves Dauvilliers, Patrick Levy, Renaud Tamisier and Jean-Louis Pépin

Withdrawal of non-invasive ventilatory support in myotonic dystrophy patients with chronic hypercapnia produced no change in quality of life (QOL) nor somnolence. Small deteriorations were seen in nocturnal oxygenation and daytime CO2 , but without changes in respiratory drive nor lung function. This suggests that the benefits of ventilation support in this group are uncertain.

1423Tuberculosis in China: A longitudinal predictive model of the general population and recommendations for achieving WHO goals
Kaijin Xu, Cheng Ding, Connor J. Mangan, Yiping Li, Jingjing Ren, Shigui Yang, Bing Wang, Bing Ruan, Jifang Sheng and Lanjuan Li

We used an eight-state Markov model to predict the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic over 50 years among the general population in China, and we determined the influencing factors and suggested a specific 90-90-90 strategy for TB. Under this strategy, the prevalence would be 1.77 cases per 100,000 population within 50 years.

1430Spirometry training courses: Content, delivery and assessment - a position statement from the Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science
Maureen P. Swanney, Christopher A. O'Dea, Emily R. Ingram, Leanne T. Rodwell, Brigitte M. Borg and for the ANZSRS Spirometry Training Course Working Group
1436Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Lung Foundation Australia
Helen E. Jo, Lauren K. Troy, Gregory Keir, Daniel C. Chambers, Anne Holland, Nicole Goh, Margaret Wilsher, Sally de Boer, Yuben Moodley, Christopher Grainge, Helen Whitford, Sally Chapman, Paul N. Reynolds, Ian Glaspole, David Beatson, Leonie Jones, Peter Hopkins and Tamera J. Corte
1459The interstitial lung disease multidisciplinary meeting: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Lung Foundation Australia
Jyotika D. Prasad, Annabelle Mahar, Jane Bleasel, Samantha J. Ellis, Daniel C. Chambers, Fiona Lake, Peter M.A. Hopkins, Tamera J. Corte, Heather Allan and Ian N. Glaspole
1473Should resistance training be targeted to a specific subgroup of patients with non-small cell lung cancer?
Vinicius Cavalheri, Daniel A. Galvão, Leon M. Straker and Kylie Hill
1474Should resistance training be targeted to a specific subgroup of patients with non-small cell lung cancer? – Reply
Chris Burtin, Frits M.E. Franssen and Martijn A. Spruit