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Table of Contents for
Volume 22 Issue 5
July 2017

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839Opportunities and challenges of non-CF bronchiectasis
Paul T King
841Maintaining quality of life in IPF patients: What role should pulmonary rehabilitation play?
Melissa J Benton & Helen L Graham
843Elastography in endobronchial ultrasound: Stretching the boundary of minimally invasive staging further
Daniel P Steinfort
845Cardiac troponin T as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in community-acquired pneumonia
Charles Feldman & Ronald Anderson
847Ethnic differences in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea: Exploring non-anatomical factors
Abd A Tahrani
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
849P4 medicine approach to obstructive sleep apnoea
Diane C Lim, Kate Sutherland, Peter A Cistulli & Allan I Pack
861A resource of potential drug targets and strategic decision-making for obstructive sleep apnoea pharmacotherapy
Richard L Horner, Kevin P Grace & Andrew Wellman
Seeking innovative solutions in severe asthma
874Mouse models of severe asthma: Understanding the mechanisms of steroid resistance, tissue remodelling and disease exacerbation
Steven Maltby, Hock L Tay, Ming Yang & Paul S Foster
886Severe asthma in children
Andrew Bush, Louise Fleming & Sejal Saglani
Asthma and Allergy
898Oral administration of Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313-1 reduces ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice
Zhang Juan, Shi Zhao-Ling, Zeng Ming-Hua, Wei Chun, Wu Hai-Xia, Liu Meng-Yun, Huang Jian-Qiong, Zheng Yue-Jie & Sun Xin

Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313-1 (C. butyricum) was administered orally to mouse models of allergic airways disease. We found that C. butyricum can reduce ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.

905Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 prevents allergic asthma in mice
Vanessa M B Fonseca, Thamires M S Milani, Rafael Prado, Vania L D Bonato, Simone G Ramos, Flaviano S Martins, Elcio O Vianna & Marcos de C Borges

Probiotics are a promising strategy for asthma prevention. We evaluated the effects of a yeast probiotic in ovalbumin-challenged mice. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 prevented the development of main asthma-like characteristics, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia and airway and lung inflammation.

913Eosinophil transendothelial migration induced by the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acute eosinophilic pneumonia
Kazuyuki Nakagome, Hisakazu Shoda, Tetsu Shirai, Fuyumi Nishihara, Tomoyuki Soma, Yoshitaka Uchida, Yoshio Sakamoto & Makoto Nagata

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) induces eosinophil transendothelial migration. CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3 ligands including eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and LTB4 may play roles in the accumulation of eosinophils in AEP.

922Patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis: Clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett & Lata Jayaram

In addition to pathogenic microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, frequent exacerbations requiring hospitalization in bronchiectasis are associated with co-morbidities of asthma and COPD, and bronchodilator reversibility. Patients are often from lower socio-economic backgrounds.

928Echocardiographic abnormalities and their impact on health status in patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation
Sarah Houben-Wilke, Martijn A Spruit, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Gosia Otkinska, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Paul W Jones, Emiel F M Wouters & Frits M E Franssen

Echocardiographic abnormalities occurred in almost 54% of the patients with COPD, two-third were previously unknown. Although we only detected a limited impact of echocardiographic abnormalities on health status, early identification and treatment of cardiac co-morbidities may be important for the patients' safety and prognosis.

Editor's choice
Airflow limitation severity and post-operative pulmonary complications following extra-pulmonary surgery in COPD patients
Beomsu Shin, Hyun Lee, Danbee Kang, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hyung Koo Kang, Hae Ri Chon, Won-Jung Koh, Man Pyo Chung, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho & Hye Yun Park

A progressive and significant relationship was demonstrated between severity of airflow limitation and the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications in COPD patients undergoing extra-pulmonary surgery. Perioperative bronchodilator use was associated with a reduced risk of respiratory failure and post-operative exacerbations in patients with severe airflow limitation.

942Impact of exacerbations on adherence and outcomes of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD
Dionne C W Braeken, Martijn A Spruit, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Dionne E Smid, Gernot G U Rohde, Emiel F M Wouters & Frits M E Franssen

Impact of mild-to-moderate and severe exacerbations on dropout and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COPD were assessed. Mild-to-moderate exacerbations did not affect dropout or response to PR and should not lead to discontinuation of PR. Severe exacerbations are associated with dropout, but patients completing PR generally respond positively yet less pronounced

Interstitial Lung Disease
Editor's choice
Health-related quality of life in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Data from the Australian IPF Registry
Ian N Glaspole, Sally A Chapman, Wendy A Cooper, Samantha J Ellis, Nicole S Goh, Peter M Hopkins, Sacha Macansh, Annabelle Mahar, Yuben P Moodley, Eldho Paul, Paul N Reynolds, E Haydn Walters, Christopher J Zappala & Tamera J Corte

This study examines the relationship of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), measured using the St George Respiratory Questionnaire, to baseline and longitudinal clinical and physiological parameters. A strong association between dyspnoea, cough, depression and longitudinal forced vital capacity (FVC) decline and HRQoL is demonstrated.

957Greater endurance capacity and improved dyspnoea with acute oxygen supplementation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients without resting hypoxaemia
Leona M Dowman, Christine F McDonald, Steven Bozinovski, Ross Vlahos, Rebecca Gillies, Dodie Pouniotis, Catherine J Hill, Nicole S L Goh & Anne E Holland

The effects of supplemental oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) were evaluated. Oxygen improved exercise tolerance, prevented exercise-induced hypoxaemia, reduced dyspnoea and decreased xanthine concentrations. Improved muscle metabolism is a possible mechanistic action of oxygen in IPF.

965AGER gene polymorphisms and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Kakuhiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yasushi Horimasu, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Kazunori Fujitaka, Hironobu Hamada, Witold Mazur, Nobuoki Kohno & Noboru Hattori

AGER rs2070600 polymorphism is frequent in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Reduced soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) might be associated with poor prognosis of IPF. Our study suggests that RAGE and its polymorphism may be related to IPF and sRAGE is a potential prognostic marker for IPF.

Interventional Pulmonology
972Diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound elastography for the differentiation of benign and malignant intrathoracic lymph nodes
Potjanee Korrungruang & Viboon Boonsarngsuk

Endobronchial ultrasound elastography has been introduced as a complementary modality in benign/malignant differentiation of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. We found that a strain ratio of >2.5 and non-type 1 elastographic pattern achieved similar high diagnostic performance in benign/malignant differentiation. It can be useful for targeting a suspicious lymph node for sampling.

Pleural Disease
978Geographic and socioeconomic factors in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in New South Wales and their impact upon clinical outcomes
Anthony Linton, Matthew Soeberg, Richard Broome, Steven Kao & Nico van Zandwijk

The impact of geographic and socioeconomic factors upon survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is unclear. Despite 'universal' health care, socioeconomic status significantly affects health outcomes. No significant impact on survival is noted for patients residing further from oncology services. Further prospective research may guide resource allocation.

Pulmonary Vascular Disease
986Progression of mean pulmonary arterial pressure in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with mild to moderate restriction
Ryo Teramachi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Masahiko Ando, Tomoki Kimura, Kensuke Kataoka, Atsushi Suzuki, Taiki Furukawa, Koji Sakamoto & Yoshinori Hasegawa

We reviewed patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with mild to moderate restriction and showed that mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) was progressive. The lowest oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) in the 6-min walk test at baseline was an independent predictor of annual change in MPAP.

991Effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on clinical outcomes of long-term dialysis patients: Pre- and post-DOTS implementation in Taiwan
Kuan-Jen Bai, Kuan-Chih Huang, Chih-Hsin Lee, Chao-Hsiun Tang, Ming-Chih Yu & Yuh-Mou Sue

This retrospective propensity-scores matched cohort study analysed the impact of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) on the clinical outcomes in long-term dialysis patients from the data between 1999 and 2013. Pulmonary TB increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients; Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course implementation reduces some morbidities and TB relapse.

Respiratory Infections
1000High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T predicts mortality after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia
Stefan M T Vestjens, Simone M C Spoorenberg, Ger T Rijkers, Jan C Grutters, Jurriën M Ten Berg, Peter G Noordzij, Ewoudt M W Van de Garde, Willem Jan W Bos & the Ovidius Study Group

High mortality rates after hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. In a well-described cohort, we demonstrated that cardiac troponin T on admission with CAP is a strong independent predictor of short- and long-term mortality, possibly reflecting acute cardiac damage or disease severity.

Sleep and Ventilation
1007A 7-year follow-up study of obstructive sleep apnoea in healthy elderly: The PROOF cohort study
Emilia Sforza, David Hupin, Vincent Pichot, Jean Claude Barthélémy & Frédéric Roche

In healthy seniors, the prevalence and the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) decrease progressively with ageing without effect of factors commonly influencing OSA severity. This trend may support the hypothesis that in healthy elderly, OSA is a phenomenon related to ageing.

1015Differences in respiratory arousal threshold in Caucasian and Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea
Richard W W Lee, Kate Sutherland, Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Tat on Chan, Susanna S S NG, David S Hui & Peter A Cistulli

Ethnic differences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. This study shows that Chinese patients with moderate-severe OSA are less likely to have a low respiratory arousal threshold compared with Caucasians. These findings highlight that ethnicity may need to be considered when tailoring therapies for OSA.

1022Year in review 2016: Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary vascular disease, pulmonary function, paediatric lung disease, cystic fibrosis and sleep
Adelle S Jee, Tamera J Corte, Stephen J Wort, Neil D Eves, Claire E Wainwright & Amanda Piper
1035The microbiome and secondary lung disease in neuromuscular patients: Is it time to change our clinical practice?
Grazia Crescimanno & Oreste Marrone
1036The microbiome and secondary lung disease in neuromuscular patients: Is it time to change our clinical practice? – Reply
Florian Stehling, Joerg Steinmann & Uwe Mellies
1037Endobronchial ultrasound elastography for the differentiation of benign and malignant lymph nodes
Saurabh Mittal, Anant Mohan & Karan Madan
1038Endobronchial ultrasound elastography for the differentiation of benign and malignant lymph nodes – Reply
Potjanee Korrungruang & Viboon Boonsarngsuk