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Table of Contents for
Volume 22 Issue 1
January 2017

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7Respirology and the Asia-Pacific Century
Philip Bardin & Paul Reynolds
9Adult asthma quick reference guides: Trans-Tasman differences in opinion
Richard Beasley, Darmiga Thayabaran & Robert J Hancox
12Clinical value of pulmonary hyperinflation as a treatment outcome in cystic fibrosis
Daniel Stevens
14A new era in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Epilogue to a review series
Tamera J Corte, Harold Collard & Athol U Wells
17Update in respiratory sleep disorders: Prologue to a modern review series
Peter R Eastwood, Mary J Morrell & Atul Malhotra
19Severe asthma: Can we fix it? Prologue to seeking innovative solutions for severe asthma
Vanessa M McDonald, Steven Maltby & Peter G Gibson
Unravelling the Many Faces of COPD to Optimize Its Care and Outcomes
21Animal models of COPD: What do they tell us?
Bernadette Jones, Chantal Donovan, Gang Liu, Henry M Gomez, Vrushali Chimankar, Celeste L Harrison, Cornelis H Wiegman, Ian M Adcock, Darryl A Knight, Jeremy A Hirota & Philip M Hansbro
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
33Obstructive sleep apnoea pathogenesis from mild to severe: Is it all the same?
Bradley A Edwards, Danny J Eckert & Amy S Jordan
43Pathogenesis of central and complex sleep apnoea
Jeremy E Orr, Atul Malhotra & Scott A Sands
Seeking Innovative Solutions for Severe Asthma
53Severe asthma: Current management, targeted therapies and future directions – A roundtable report
Vanessa M McDonald, Steven Maltby, Helen K Reddel, Gregory G King, Peter A B Wark, Lorraine Smith, John W Upham, Alan L James, Guy B Marks & Peter G Gibson
61Do inhaled corticosteroids protect against lung cancer in patients with COPD? A systematic review
Adam J N Raymakers, Natalie McCormick, Carlo A Marra, J Mark Fitzgerald, Don Sin & Larry D Lynd
Asthma and Allergy
71Association between levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma exacerbations in Thai children
Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Nawinda Mahawichit & Kittipong Maneechotesuwan

The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level at a visit before an asthma exacerbation (AE) was significantly higher in asthmatic patients who experienced an AE within the next 12 months. The optimal cut-off point of FeNO level for the prediction of an AE is 31 ppb.

78Comprehensive attenuation of IL-25-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodelling by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002
Ping Huang, Yan Li, Ze Lv, Jingjing Wang, Qian Zhang, Xiujuan Yao, Chris J Corrigan, Kewu Huang, Wei Wang & Sun Ying

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pan-inhibitor LY294002 effectively attenuated IL-25-induced airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodelling in a murine asthma model in an in vivo condition.

86Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults
Keitaro Omori, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Takashi Yamane, Taku Nakashima, Yoshinori Haruta, Noboru Hattori, Akihito Yokoyama & Nobuoki Kohno

We performed a large cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the association of remitted childhood asthma with lung function in middle-aged adults. We found that not only adulthood asthma, but also remitted childhood asthma was associated with airflow obstruction.

93Inhibition of IL-13-induced periostin in airway epithelium attenuates cellular protein expression of MUC5AC
Isao Suzaki, Shuichi Kawano, Kosaku Komiya, Tsuyoshi Tanabe, Tomohiro Akaba, Kazuhito Asano, Harumi Suzaki, Kenji Izuhara & Bruce K Rubin

Airway epithelial cells, in particular goblet cells, appear to be an important source of periostin in the serum and sputum of asthmatic patients. IL-13 induced periostin production in NHBE cells and this was mediated by Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6 (STAT6) and MEK/extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways. Inhibiting periostin attenuated IL-13-driven MUC5AC mucin secretion.

101Bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome
Georgia Woodfield, Mitzi Nisbet, Joe Jacob, Wing Mok, Michael R Loebinger, David M Hansell, Athol U Wells & Robert Wilson

Bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome (YNS) has distinct features which influence clinical presentation and management. Bronchiectasis in YNS is milder than in idiopathic bronchiectasis, with less upper and middle lobe disease, but increased mucus plugging. A better understanding of aetiology may influence future research and management decisions.

108Bronchoarterial ratio in never-smokers adults: Implications for bronchial dilation definition
Alejandro A Diaz, Thomas P Young, Diego J Maselli, Carlos H Martinez, Erick S Maclean, Andrew Yen, Chandra Dass, Scott A Simpson, David A Lynch, Gregory L Kinney, John E Hokanson, George R Washko & Raul San José Estépar

In 106 never-smokers adults, the mean ratio of the diameters of the bronchial lumen and adjacent pulmonary artery, a defining radiological feature of bronchiectasis, was 0.79, varied by airway generation and in 8.5% of them was >1. This metric was directly related with expiratory airflow regardless of body size.

114Role of BMI, airflow obstruction, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and age index in prognostication of Asian COPD
Hiang Ping Chan, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Pauline Lee Poh Chong, Sally Chin, Xue Yun Wong, Venetia Ong, Yiong Huak Chan, Tow Keang Lim & Jason Phua

The BMI, airflow obstruction, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and age (BOSA) index is a new tool, built and prospectively validated in this study for prognosticating patients with COPD. It predicts mortality moderately well and is at least equivalent to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2011 in Asian patients. It has the potential to be used widely as complex testing or equipment is not required.

120Exercise hypoxaemia as a predictor of pulmonary hypertension in COPD patients without severe resting hypoxaemia
Yoshio Nakahara, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Tomoki Kimura, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Shinichi Arizono, Koichi Nishimura, Koji Sakamoto, Satoru Ito, Masahiko Ando & Yoshinori Hasegawa

In patients with COPD without resting hypoxaemia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) significantly correlated with oxygen saturation of peripheral artery (SpO2 ) at the end of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). In multivariate analysis, only SpO2 at the end of the 6MWT and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) remained as independent predictors of mPAP. Thus, exercise capacity and exercise hypoxaemia predict pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD patients without resting hypoxaemia.

126Expression of RANKL by peripheral neutrophils and its association with bone mineral density in COPD
XiaoLing Hu, Yongchang Sun, Weihan Xu, Tao Lin & Hui Zeng

Peripheral blood neutrophils from male patients with COPD had enhanced expression of the osteoclast activation factor RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand), which correlated with bone mineral density and lung function of the patients.

133Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and Smad signalling pathways: A likely key to EMT-associated COPD pathogenesis
Malik Q Mahmood, David Reid, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Darryl A Knight, Sukhwinder S Sohal & Eugene H Walters

COPD is fundamentally due to small airway fibrosis mainly in smokers. Pathologically, it is associated with active epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Relatively, little has been studied regarding the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-pSmad pathway in smokers and COPD. This study facilitates the understanding of EMT-associated pathogenesis of COPD in terms of this pathway.

Cystic fibrosis
141Relationship between pulmonary hyperinflation and dyspnoea severity during acute exacerbations of cystic fibrosis
Trevor T Nicholson, Peter J Barry, Deirdre F Waterhouse, Geraldine M Nolan, Edward F McKone & Charles G Gallagher

This study explores the relationship between dyspnoea and pulmonary function during acute exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF). Indicators of pulmonary hyperinflation, rather than forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), are associated with the severity of dyspnoea during treatment. As total lung capacity (TLC) does not change with treatment, inspiratory capacity (IC) measurement may provide a useful means of assessing treatment response.

Environmental & Occupational Lung Disease
Editor's choice
Ecological study on solid fuel use and pneumonia in young children: A worldwide association
Roberto A Accinelli, Juan A Leon-Abarca & David Gozal

Solid fuels and associated biomass pollution have been implicated in an expanded array of adverse health effects. We performed a worldwide ecological assessment and identified that in addition to poverty and other economic indicators, solid fuels independently contribute to the prevalence of acute pneumonia in young children.

Pulmonary Vascular Disease
157Bromodomain and extra-terminal protein mimic JQ1 decreases inflammation in human vascular endothelial cells: Implications for pulmonary arterial hypertension
Sharon Mumby, Natalia Gambaryan, Chao Meng, Frederic Perros, Marc Humbert, S John Wort & Ian M Adcock

Endothelial cell inflammation and proliferation are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) mimics reduced inflammation and cell proliferation in primary human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. The enhanced histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity in PAH suggests that BET mimics may be effective in PAH although experiments in disease cells/tissues are required.

165Gas exchange responses during 6-min walk test in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension
Norman R Morris, Helen Seale, Julie Harris, Kathleen Hall, Aaron C W Lin & Fiona Kermeen

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients have reduced exercise tolerance and characteristic gas exchange responses. Inclusion of gas exchange measurements during the 6-min walk test showed that individuals with more severe disease and more advance pharmacotherapy had poorer gas exchange during exercise.

172Prognostic value of right ventricular ejection/filling parameters in IPAH using cardiac magnetic resonance: A prospective pilot study
Wen Li, Tao Yang, Yan Zhang, Qing Gu, Zhi-Hong Liu, Xin-Hai Ni, Qin Luo, Chang-Ming Xiong & Jian-Guo He

The prognostic values of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived right ventricular (RV) ejection/filling parameters in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients were examined. RV time to peak ejection rate (TPER) and TPER/time of a cardiac cycle (TCC) were found to reflect RV early systolic function, and thus may be prognostic predictive values for long-term cardiac impairment in IPAH patients.

179Prognostic and pathophysiological marker for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Usefulness of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide at diagnosis
Rika Suda, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Keiichi Ishida, Fumiaki Kato, Takashi Urushibara, Ayumi Sekine, Rintaro Nishimura, Takayuki Jujo, Toshihiko Sugiura, Ayako Shigeta, Seiichiro Sakao & Koichiro Tatsumi

This is the first study identifying decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)/alveolar ventilation (VA) (<80%) as an independent poor prognostic factor in medically treated chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients. This study also demonstrated that DLCO/VA may reflect peripheral microvasculopathy, which is a major cause of poor outcome.

Paediatric Lung Disease
187Risk factors for morbidities and mortality in children following pneumonectomy
Verónica Giubergia, Florencia Alessandrini, Carolina Barrias, Carlos Giuseppucci, Aixa Reusmann, Marcelo Barrenechea & Claudio Castaños

Risk factors related to morbidity and mortality after pneumonectomy (PNE) have been described in adults. This study explores the risk factors following PNE in children. Age ≤3 years and the need for ventilation assistance for 4 days or longer was associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Pleural Disease
Editor's choice
Malignant pleural fluid from mesothelioma has potent biological activities
Hui Min Cheah, Sally M Lansley, Julius F Varano della Vergiliana, Ai Ling Tan, Rajesh Thomas, Su Lyn Leong, Jenette Creaney & Yun Chor Gary Lee

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is often viewed as a by-product of cancer with breathlessness as the only significant consequence. Its production and role in cancer biology are unclear. This study provides 'proof-of-concept' evidence revealing potent biological capabilities in cancer progression. Further understanding of MPE may uncover exciting therapeutic possibilities.

200Target oxygen saturation range: 92–96% Versus 94–98%
Richard Beasley, Jimmy Chien, James Douglas, Leonie Eastlake, Claude Farah, Gregory King, Rosemary Moore, Janine Pilcher, Michael Richards, Sheree Smith & Haydn Walters
203Metformin use and asthma: Further investigations
Sreenivas P Veeranki
203Metformin use and asthma: Further investigations – Reply
Chun-Yi Li, Steven R Erickson & Chung-Hsuen Wu