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Table of Contents for
Volume 23 Issue 1
January 2018

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7Refining the role of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration in lung cancer staging
Phan Nguyen
9Pathogenesis of pleural infection: A complex warfare
Natalia Popowicz, Steven Idell and Y C Gary Lee
11Role of routine post-operative laryngeal endoscopic assessment after lung cancer surgery
Chong-Kin Liam
13Variability of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in asthma and COPD
Peter G Gibson
15E-cigarettes and airways' disease: Behind the smokescreen
Matthew J Peters
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
17Update in respiratory sleep disorders: Epilogue to a modern review series
Atul Malhotra, Mary J Morrell and Peter R Eastwood
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
27The genetics of obstructive sleep apnoea
Sutapa Mukherjee, Richa Saxena and Lyle J Palmer
Respiratory Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region
35Pneumonia in the tropics
Tow Keang Lim and Wen Ting Siow
45Recent controversies about MDR and XDR-TB: Global implementation of the WHO shorter MDR-TB regimen and bedaquiline for all with MDR-TB?
Keertan Dheda, Helen Cox, Aliasgar Esmail, Sean Wasserman, Kwok Chiu Chang and Christoph Lange
54A systematic review of the prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in cystic fibrosis
Katherine B Frayman, Traci M Kazmerski and Susan M Sawyer
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
59Old age and underlying interstitial abnormalities are risk factors for development of ARDS after pleurodesis using limited amount of large particle size talc
Yuki Shinno, Hidenori Kage, Haruka Chino, Atsushi Inaba, Sayaka Arakawa, Satoshi Noguchi, Yosuke Amano, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Goh Tanaka and Takahide Nagase

Talc pleurodesis can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but this rarely occurs with a limited amount of large particle size talc. We present four patients who developed ARDS after talc pleurodesis. Age and presence of interstitial abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT) may be risk factors for ARDS after talc pleurodesis.

Editor's choice
Effect on health-related quality of life of ongoing feedback during a 12-month maintenance walking programme in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial
Sally L Wootton, Zoe McKeough, Cindy L W Ng, Sue Jenkins, Kylie Hill, Peter R Eastwood, David Hillman, Christine Jenkins, Nola Cecins, Lissa Spencer and Jennifer Alison

Ongoing feedback (telephone calls and biofeedback) was no more effective than no feedback during a 12-month unsupervised walking programme that followed a short-term supervised walking programme. Based on these findings, further research is needed to investigate the optimal design of unsupervised maintenance programmes in patients with COPD.

75VEGF synthesis is induced by prostacyclin and TGF-β in distal lung fibroblasts from COPD patients and control subjects: Implications for pulmonary vascular remodelling
Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Mariam Bagher, Annika Andersson-Sjöland, Lena Thiman, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Oskar Hallgren, Leif Bjermer and Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is synthesized in high amounts by primary distally derived human lung fibroblasts. Our data indicate differences in cyclooxygenase (COX)-related responses in distal lung fibroblasts in COPD compared with healthy individuals, which may promote ongoing remodelling processes in the distal lung.

Interventional Pulmonology
81Diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided mediastinal lymph node sampling in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: A prospective study
Macarena R Vial, Oisin J O'Connell, Horiana B Grosu, Mike Hernandez, Laila Noor, Roberto F Casal, John Stewart, Mona Sarkiss, Carlos A Jimenez, David Rice, Reza Mehran, David E Ost and George A Eapen

We assessed the sensitivity of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with lung cancer staged as N0/N1 by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). EBUS-TBNA improved the pretreatment staging of these patients compared with PET/CT; however, the sensitivity for N2 disease is only 40%, lower than sensitivities previously reported for N2/N3 patients.

Lung Function
88The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with lung function: A survey design analysis using propensity score
Min-Sun Kwak, Eunyoung Kim, Eun Jin Jang and Chang-Hoon Lee

Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and lung function are known to be associated with metabolic syndromes; however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between NAFLD and lung function. This population-based study showed that NAFLD was significantly associated with lower lung function; this relationship was more prominent among males.

Pleural Disease
95Lipoteichoic acid upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in parapneumonic effusions
Kai-Ling Lee, Wei-Lin Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Kevin S Lai and Chi-Li Chung

In Gram-positive parapneumonic effusions, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression through activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) pathway in human pleural mesothelial cells. Improved understanding of the modulation of PAI-1 synthesis by LTA may provide potential therapies for pleural effusions caused by infection.

Sleep and Ventilation
99Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation post lung transplantation
Sakhee Kotecha, Catherine Buchan, Kerry Parker, Jo Toghill, Eldho Paul, Belinda Miller, Matthew Naughton, Gregory Snell and Eli Dabscheck

Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) post lung transplantation (LTx) is seldom required. LTx recipients with ventilatory failure secondary to chronic lung allograft dysfunction may benefit from NIV as a bridge to redo-LTx or as a palliative measure. LTx recipients with diaphragmatic palsy may be weaned off NIV as they recover.

106History of pulmonary tuberculosis affects the severity and clinical outcomes of COPD
Hye Jung Park, Min Kwang Byun, Hyung Jung Kim, Chul Min Ahn, Deog Kyeom Kim, Yu Il Kim, Jin Young Oh, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Kwang-Ha Yoo and Ki Suck Jung

We demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a history of tuberculosis (TB) had more severe symptoms, poorer lung function and more frequent exacerbations. The differences were sustained for 3 years compared with those with no TB history.

Thoracic Surgery and Transplantation
Editor's choice
Usefulness of a routine endoscopic assessment of laryngeal lesions after lung cancer surgery
Alex Fourdrain, Florence De Dominicis, Jules Iquille, Sophie Lafitte, Geoni Merlusca, Alejandro Witte Pfister, Patrick Bagan and Pascal Berna

Post-operative endoscopic laryngeal assessment is effective in diagnosing laryngeal lesions following pulmonary resection. These lesions are associated with respiratory morbidity, especially aspiration, and mortality. Routine post-operative laryngeal endoscopic assessment may help diagnose these lesions early and enable prompt treatment.

112Letter from Hong Kong
Macy M S Lui, Maureen M L Wong, Wilson K S Yee and Chun-Kong Ng
114Inclusion of sepsis and hypoxaemia in mortality prediction of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia
Huriye Berk Takir, Antonio M Esquinas and Alastair J Glossop
114Inclusion of sepsis and hypoxaemia in mortality prediction of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia
Stefan M T Vestjens, Simone M C Spoorenberg, Ewoudt M W van de Garde and Willem Jan W Bos
This article corrects:

Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Lung Foundation Australia
Vol. 22, Issue 7, 1436, Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2017

This article corrects:

Mandibular position and movements: Suitability for diagnosis of sleep apnoea
Vol. 22, Issue 3, 567, Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2016