Talc pleurodesis can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but this rarely occurs with a limited amount of large particle size talc. We present four patients who developed ARDS after talc pleurodesis. Age and presence of interstitial abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT) may be risk factors for ARDS after talc pleurodesis.
Effect on health-related quality of life of ongoing feedback during a 12-month maintenance walking programme in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial
Sally L Wootton, Zoe McKeough, Cindy L W Ng, Sue Jenkins, Kylie Hill, Peter R Eastwood, David Hillman, Christine Jenkins, Nola Cecins, Lissa Spencer and Jennifer Alison
Ongoing feedback (telephone calls and biofeedback) was no more effective than no feedback during a 12-month unsupervised walking programme that followed a short-term supervised walking programme. Based on these findings, further research is needed to investigate the optimal design of unsupervised maintenance programmes in patients with COPD.
VEGF synthesis is induced by prostacyclin and TGF-β in distal lung fibroblasts from COPD patients and control subjects: Implications for pulmonary vascular remodelling
Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Mariam Bagher, Annika Andersson-Sjöland, Lena Thiman, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Oskar Hallgren, Leif Bjermer and Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is synthesized in high amounts by primary distally derived human lung fibroblasts. Our data indicate differences in cyclooxygenase (COX)-related responses in distal lung fibroblasts in COPD compared with healthy individuals, which may promote ongoing remodelling processes in the distal lung.
Diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided mediastinal lymph node sampling in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: A prospective study
Macarena R Vial, Oisin J O'Connell, Horiana B Grosu, Mike Hernandez, Laila Noor, Roberto F Casal, John Stewart, Mona Sarkiss, Carlos A Jimenez, David Rice, Reza Mehran, David E Ost and George A Eapen
We assessed the sensitivity of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with lung cancer staged as N0/N1 by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). EBUS-TBNA improved the pretreatment staging of these patients compared with PET/CT; however, the sensitivity for N2 disease is only 40%, lower than sensitivities previously reported for N2/N3 patients.
The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with lung function: A survey design analysis using propensity score
Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and lung function are known to be associated with metabolic syndromes; however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between NAFLD and lung function. This population-based study showed that NAFLD was significantly associated with lower lung function; this relationship was more prominent among males.
Lipoteichoic acid upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in parapneumonic effusions
Kai-Ling Lee, Wei-Lin Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Kevin S Lai and Chi-Li Chung
In Gram-positive parapneumonic effusions, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression through activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) pathway in human pleural mesothelial cells. Improved understanding of the modulation of PAI-1 synthesis by LTA may provide potential therapies for pleural effusions caused by infection.
Sleep and Ventilation
Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation post lung transplantation
Sakhee Kotecha, Catherine Buchan, Kerry Parker, Jo Toghill, Eldho Paul, Belinda Miller, Matthew Naughton, Gregory Snell and Eli Dabscheck
Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) post lung transplantation (LTx) is seldom required. LTx recipients with ventilatory failure secondary to chronic lung allograft dysfunction may benefit from NIV as a bridge to redo-LTx or as a palliative measure. LTx recipients with diaphragmatic palsy may be weaned off NIV as they recover.
History of pulmonary tuberculosis affects the severity and clinical outcomes of COPD
Hye Jung Park, Min Kwang Byun, Hyung Jung Kim, Chul Min Ahn, Deog Kyeom Kim, Yu Il Kim, Jin Young Oh, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Kwang-Ha Yoo and Ki Suck Jung
We demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a history of tuberculosis (TB) had more severe symptoms, poorer lung function and more frequent exacerbations. The differences were sustained for 3 years compared with those with no TB history.
Thoracic Surgery and Transplantation
Usefulness of a routine endoscopic assessment of laryngeal lesions after lung cancer surgery
Alex Fourdrain, Florence De Dominicis, Jules Iquille, Sophie Lafitte, Geoni Merlusca, Alejandro Witte Pfister, Patrick Bagan and Pascal Berna
Post-operative endoscopic laryngeal assessment is effective in diagnosing laryngeal lesions following pulmonary resection. These lesions are associated with respiratory morbidity, especially aspiration, and mortality. Routine post-operative laryngeal endoscopic assessment may help diagnose these lesions early and enable prompt treatment.
Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Lung Foundation Australia
Vol. 22, Issue 7, 1436, Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2017