Training and proficiency in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: A systematic review
Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal & Ritesh Agarwal
Asthma and Allergy
Age is associated with asthma phenotypes
Eduardo V Ponte, Aline Lima, Paula C A Almeida, Juliana P V de Jesus, Valmar B Lima, Nicola Scichilone, Adelmir Souza-Machado & Álvaro A Cruz
In this cross-sectional study, we demonstrated that asthmatic subjects aged 65 years or older have lower odds of atopic and eosinophilic phenotypes compared with younger subjects, whereas they present with higher odds of irreversible airway obstruction and severe asthma.
Treatment evaluation using lung sound analysis in asthmatic children
We developed a new technology for analysing lung sounds using the ic700 (index of the chest wall at 700 Hz, sound intensity at 700 Hz). We assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in childhood and infantile asthma in a non-invasive manner and predict an attack while avoiding the influence of individual differences of airflow.
Is higher population-level use of ICS/LABA combination associated with better asthma outcomes? Cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative populations in New Zealand and Australia
Helen K Reddel, Lutz Beckert, Angela Moran, Tristram Ingham, Rosario D Ampon, Matthew J Peters & Susan M Sawyer
Poor asthma symptom control and urgent healthcare episodes remain common in New Zealand (NZ) and Australia (AU). More costly inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) use was strikingly higher in AU, but NZ achieved similar outcomes with wider use of cheaper ICS monotherapy and better adherence. Pharmaceutical regulation, patient costs and patterns of clinical practice are likely influences.
Continuous non-invasive PCO2 monitoring in weaning patients: Transcutaneous is advantageous over end-tidal PCO2
Sarah B Schwarz, Wolfram Windisch, Friederike S Magnet, Claudia Schmoor, Christian Karagiannidis, Jens Callegari, Sophie E Huttmann & Jan H Storre
The present trial was designed to investigate the potential roles of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) monitoring in patients with prolonged weaning, especially in COPD patients. The present study showed that PtcCO2 monitoring reflects the gold standard method of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) measurements within predefined clinically acceptable range, while PetCO2 showed a systematic underestimation of PaCO2.
Environmental and Occupational Lung Disease
Evaluation of visual and computer-based CT analysis for the identification of functional patterns of obstruction and restriction in hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Anne Laure Brun, Ryoko Egashira, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Vasileios Kouranos, Maria Kokosi, David M Hansell & Athol U Wells
In hypersensitivity pneumonitis, computer-derived (CALIPER) variables are stronger predictors of restriction and obstruction than visual computed tomography (CT) scores as judged by correlations between morphology and functional indices. The pulmonary vessel volume demonstrated the strongest correlations of all CT variables with restrictive indices and may represent a new measure of interstitial damage.
Interstitial Lung Disease
Cough is less common and less severe in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease compared to other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases
Jasmine Z Cheng, Pearce G Wilcox, Ian Glaspole, Tamera J Corte, Darra Murphy, Cameron J Hague & Christopher J Ryerson
Cough is more common, more severe and more often productive in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) compared to systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), despite similar ILD severity. Cough severity is independently associated with dyspnoea, is not associated with other common causes of cough in ILD and is an independent predictor of quality of life.
Portable oxygen concentrators versus oxygen cylinder during walking in interstitial lung disease: A randomized crossover trial
Yet H Khor, Christine F McDonald, Anita Hazard, Karen Symons, Glen Westall, Ian Glaspole, Nicole S L Goh & Anne E Holland
This is the first crossover trial comparing the clinical performance characteristics of two portable oxygen concentrators (the Inogen One G2 and the EverGo) with that of a compressed oxygen cylinder in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), showing comparable performance among the three devices.
Resolution rate of pulmonary sarcoidosis and its related factors in a Japanese population
This study suggests that the overall rate of resolution of pulmonary sarcoidosis is lower than that reported in some previous studies that were conducted several decades ago in Japan. This may be, at least in part, due to the ageing of the Japanese population.
Disease severity staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Japan
We propose a revised disease severity staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Japan, consisting of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and exercise desaturation, and investigate its usefulness as a predictor of mortality. We show that this revised J-system can be a valuable tool for prognostication and clinical management for IPF.
Natural history and clinical characteristics of multiple pulmonary nodules with ground glass opacity
We describe the natural history of patients with multiple ground glass nodules (GGNs). In most GGNs, growth occurs within the first 36 months. Residual GGN growth after initial growth was common in multiple-GGN patients. A past history of lung cancer and size >10 mm are risk factors for growth.
Reference data for BabyBody-plethysmographic measurements in Chinese neonates and infants
Gaoli Jiang, Albert Li, Libo Wang, Liling Qian, Yun Cao, Jianfeng Huang, Chengzhou Wan & Xiaobo Zhang
This is the first description of pulmonary function in healthy Chinese neonates and infants. Pulmonary function in Chinese differs to those of European descent and therefore population-appropriate reference data are important.
Spirometry reference values for population aged 7–80 years in China
Benefitting from a nationwide health survey and a suitable statistical modelling technique, spirometry reference values covering all ages of the general population in China were developed, addressing a long-standing need for this data. Moreover, previous spirometry predictive equations showed unfavourable generalizability when applied to this study population.
Small airway dysfunction in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Selene Guerrero Zúñiga, Julia Sánchez Hernández, Heidegger Mateos Toledo, Mayra Mejía Ávila, Laura Gochicoa-Rangel, José Luis Miguel Reyes, Moisés Selman & Luis Torre-Bouscoulet
Small airway involvement in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been well characterized pathologically. Our study suggests, for the first time, that phase 3 slope by ultrasonic pneumography may be helpful in the medical care of these patients due to improvement with treatment and negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC).
Paediatric Lung Disease
Physical activity and asthma control level in children and adolescents
Natasha Y Matsunaga, Marina S Oliveira, André M Morcillo, José D Ribeiro, Maria A G O Ribeiro & Adyléia A D C Toro
Most asthmatic patients are physically active. Although exercise is known to improve health, the effect of physical activity on asthma control has not been studied. Our study showed no association between physical activity and asthma control, spirometric measurements and quality of life in children and adolescents with asthma.
Pulmonary Vascular Disease
Changes in main pulmonary artery diameter during follow-up have prognostic implications in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Adriano R Tonelli, Scott Johnson, Laith Alkukhun, Ruchi Yadav & Raed A Dweik
It remains unclear whether the increase in main pulmonary artery (PA) diameter over time has prognostic implications in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In the present study, we found that an increase in main PA diameter was associated with higher PA pressures, lower PA compliance, worse right ventricular function and reduced survival.
Anaerobic antibiotic usage for pneumonia in the medical intensive care unit
For patients with pneumonia, current guidelines recommend narrow criteria as justification for prescribing anaerobic antibiotics. We found a significant proportion of patients with pneumonia who received anaerobic antibiotics without clear indications, and that there was an increased intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay associated with such use.
Sleep and Ventilation
Dynamic loop gain increases upon adopting the supine body position during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea
Simon A Joosten, Shane A Landry, Scott A Sands, Philip I Terrill, Dwayne Mann, Christopher Andara, Elizabeth Skuza, Anthony Turton, Philip Berger, Garun S Hamilton & Bradley A Edwards
We explored whether increased ventilatory control instability (i.e. loop gain) is responsible for the observed increase in respiratory event frequency in the supine sleeping position in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Loop gain is significantly increased in the supine compared with lateral sleeping position, although the magnitude of change is small.
Tuberculosis increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: A nationwide population-based study
This study showed that patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a significantly higher risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD) than healthy control subjects. TB should be considered when evaluating a patient's risk of developing PAD.
False-positive breathalyser tests and use of metered-dose inhalers: Does inhalation technique affect test results?