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Table of Contents for
Volume 22 Issue 8
November 2017

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1481Managing patients with interstitial lung disease: Two more pieces of the puzzle
Francesco Macagno, Paolo Maria Leone & Luca Richeldi
1483Simulation and assessment tools in EBUS TBNA training: What are we waiting for?
David Fielding
1485Phenotyping asthma: More complex than just age
Rodrigo Athanazio & Alberto Cukier
1487Asthma prescribing: Where are we headed?
Richard Beasley, Jo Hardy & Robert Hancox
1489Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: A protean and challenging disease
Adelle S Jee, Helen E Jo & Tamera J Corte
1491Cough in fibrotic lung disease: An unresolved challenge
Peter Saunders & Toby M Maher
1493Multiple sub-solid nodules: Different or just more?
Alistair R Miller
1495Broader implications for the widened pulmonary artery?
Martin I MacDonald
1497Home mechanical ventilation for stable COPD in GOLD 2017: What are we ventilating?
Jose L Lopez-Campos, Candelaria Caballero-Eraso & Emilia Barrot-Cortés
Respiratory Sleep Disorders
1500Treating OSA: Current and emerging therapies beyond CPAP
Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Fernanda R Almeida & Patrick J Strollo
1508Does remote monitoring change OSA management and CPAP adherence?
Jean L Pépin, Renaud Tamisier, Dennis Hwang, Suresh Mereddy & Sairam Parthasarathy
Respiratory Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region
1518The global burden of respiratory infections in indigenous children and adults: A review
Thilini L Basnayake, Lucy C Morgan & Anne B Chang
1529Community-acquired pneumonia management and outcomes in the era of health information technology
Ian D Mecham, Caroline Vines & Nathan C Dean
1536Regional differences in antibiotic-resistant pathogens in patients with pneumonia: Implications for clinicians
Yuichiro Shindo & Yoshinori Hasegawa
1547Training and proficiency in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: A systematic review
Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal & Ritesh Agarwal
Asthma and Allergy
1558Age is associated with asthma phenotypes
Eduardo V Ponte, Aline Lima, Paula C A Almeida, Juliana P V de Jesus, Valmar B Lima, Nicola Scichilone, Adelmir Souza-Machado & Álvaro A Cruz

In this cross-sectional study, we demonstrated that asthmatic subjects aged 65 years or older have lower odds of atopic and eosinophilic phenotypes compared with younger subjects, whereas they present with higher odds of irreversible airway obstruction and severe asthma.

1564Treatment evaluation using lung sound analysis in asthmatic children
Chizu Habukawa, Katsumi Murakami, Mitsuru Endoh, Noriaki Horii & Yukio Nagasaka

We developed a new technology for analysing lung sounds using the ic700 (index of the chest wall at 700 Hz, sound intensity at 700 Hz). We assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in childhood and infantile asthma in a non-invasive manner and predict an attack while avoiding the influence of individual differences of airflow.

1570Is higher population-level use of ICS/LABA combination associated with better asthma outcomes? Cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative populations in New Zealand and Australia
Helen K Reddel, Lutz Beckert, Angela Moran, Tristram Ingham, Rosario D Ampon, Matthew J Peters & Susan M Sawyer

Poor asthma symptom control and urgent healthcare episodes remain common in New Zealand (NZ) and Australia (AU). More costly inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) use was strikingly higher in AU, but NZ achieved similar outcomes with wider use of cheaper ICS monotherapy and better adherence. Pharmaceutical regulation, patient costs and patterns of clinical practice are likely influences.

1579Continuous non-invasive PCO2 monitoring in weaning patients: Transcutaneous is advantageous over end-tidal PCO2
Sarah B Schwarz, Wolfram Windisch, Friederike S Magnet, Claudia Schmoor, Christian Karagiannidis, Jens Callegari, Sophie E Huttmann & Jan H Storre

The present trial was designed to investigate the potential roles of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) monitoring in patients with prolonged weaning, especially in COPD patients. The present study showed that PtcCO2 monitoring reflects the gold standard method of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) measurements within predefined clinically acceptable range, while PetCO2 showed a systematic underestimation of PaCO2.

Environmental and Occupational Lung Disease
1585Evaluation of visual and computer-based CT analysis for the identification of functional patterns of obstruction and restriction in hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Anne Laure Brun, Ryoko Egashira, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Vasileios Kouranos, Maria Kokosi, David M Hansell & Athol U Wells

In hypersensitivity pneumonitis, computer-derived (CALIPER) variables are stronger predictors of restriction and obstruction than visual computed tomography (CT) scores as judged by correlations between morphology and functional indices. The pulmonary vessel volume demonstrated the strongest correlations of all CT variables with restrictive indices and may represent a new measure of interstitial damage.

Interstitial Lung Disease
1592Cough is less common and less severe in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease compared to other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases
Jasmine Z Cheng, Pearce G Wilcox, Ian Glaspole, Tamera J Corte, Darra Murphy, Cameron J Hague & Christopher J Ryerson

Cough is more common, more severe and more often productive in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) compared to systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), despite similar ILD severity. Cough severity is independently associated with dyspnoea, is not associated with other common causes of cough in ILD and is an independent predictor of quality of life.

1598Portable oxygen concentrators versus oxygen cylinder during walking in interstitial lung disease: A randomized crossover trial
Yet H Khor, Christine F McDonald, Anita Hazard, Karen Symons, Glen Westall, Ian Glaspole, Nicole S L Goh & Anne E Holland

This is the first crossover trial comparing the clinical performance characteristics of two portable oxygen concentrators (the Inogen One G2 and the EverGo) with that of a compressed oxygen cylinder in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), showing comparable performance among the three devices.

1604Resolution rate of pulmonary sarcoidosis and its related factors in a Japanese population
Takeshi Hattori, Satoshi Konno, Noriharu Shijubo, Mitsuhide Ohmichi, Tetsuo Yamaguchi & Masaharu Nishimura

This study suggests that the overall rate of resolution of pulmonary sarcoidosis is lower than that reported in some previous studies that were conducted several decades ago in Japan. This may be, at least in part, due to the ageing of the Japanese population.

1609Disease severity staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Japan
Yasuhiro Kondoh, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Kensuke Kataoka, Taiki Furukawa, Masahiko Ando, Kenta Murotani, Michiaki Mishima, Yoshikazu Inoue, Takashi Ogura, Masashi Bando, Koichi Hagiwara, Takafumi Suda, Hirofumi Chiba, Hiroki Takahashi, Yukihiko Sugiyama & Sakae Homma

We propose a revised disease severity staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Japan, consisting of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and exercise desaturation, and investigate its usefulness as a predictor of mortality. We show that this revised J-system can be a valuable tool for prognostication and clinical management for IPF.

Lung Cancer
Editor's choice
Natural history and clinical characteristics of multiple pulmonary nodules with ground glass opacity
Yuki Sato, Daichi Fujimoto, Takeshi Morimoto, Keiichiro Uehara, Kazuma Nagata, Ichiro Sakanoue, Hiroshi Hamakawa, Yutaka Takahashi, Yukihiro Imai & Keisuke Tomii

We describe the natural history of patients with multiple ground glass nodules (GGNs). In most GGNs, growth occurs within the first 36 months. Residual GGN growth after initial growth was common in multiple-GGN patients. A past history of lung cancer and size >10 mm are risk factors for growth.

Lung Function
1622Reference data for BabyBody-plethysmographic measurements in Chinese neonates and infants
Gaoli Jiang, Albert Li, Libo Wang, Liling Qian, Yun Cao, Jianfeng Huang, Chengzhou Wan & Xiaobo Zhang

This is the first description of pulmonary function in healthy Chinese neonates and infants. Pulmonary function in Chinese differs to those of European descent and therefore population-appropriate reference data are important.

1630Spirometry reference values for population aged 7–80 years in China
Jingzhou Zhang, Xiao Hu & Guangliang Shan

Benefitting from a nationwide health survey and a suitable statistical modelling technique, spirometry reference values covering all ages of the general population in China were developed, addressing a long-standing need for this data. Moreover, previous spirometry predictive equations showed unfavourable generalizability when applied to this study population.

1637Small airway dysfunction in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Selene Guerrero Zúñiga, Julia Sánchez Hernández, Heidegger Mateos Toledo, Mayra Mejía Ávila, Laura Gochicoa-Rangel, José Luis Miguel Reyes, Moisés Selman & Luis Torre-Bouscoulet

Small airway involvement in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been well characterized pathologically. Our study suggests, for the first time, that phase 3 slope by ultrasonic pneumography may be helpful in the medical care of these patients due to improvement with treatment and negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC).

Paediatric Lung Disease
1643Physical activity and asthma control level in children and adolescents
Natasha Y Matsunaga, Marina S Oliveira, André M Morcillo, José D Ribeiro, Maria A G O Ribeiro & Adyléia A D C Toro

Most asthmatic patients are physically active. Although exercise is known to improve health, the effect of physical activity on asthma control has not been studied. Our study showed no association between physical activity and asthma control, spirometric measurements and quality of life in children and adolescents with asthma.

Pulmonary Vascular Disease
1649Changes in main pulmonary artery diameter during follow-up have prognostic implications in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Adriano R Tonelli, Scott Johnson, Laith Alkukhun, Ruchi Yadav & Raed A Dweik

It remains unclear whether the increase in main pulmonary artery (PA) diameter over time has prognostic implications in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In the present study, we found that an increase in main PA diameter was associated with higher PA pressures, lower PA compliance, worse right ventricular function and reduced survival.

Respiratory Infections
1656Anaerobic antibiotic usage for pneumonia in the medical intensive care unit
Mutsumi J Kioka, Bruno DiGiovine, Mohamed Rezik & Jeffrey H Jennings

For patients with pneumonia, current guidelines recommend narrow criteria as justification for prescribing anaerobic antibiotics. We found a significant proportion of patients with pneumonia who received anaerobic antibiotics without clear indications, and that there was an increased intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay associated with such use.

Sleep and Ventilation
Editor's choice
Dynamic loop gain increases upon adopting the supine body position during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea
Simon A Joosten, Shane A Landry, Scott A Sands, Philip I Terrill, Dwayne Mann, Christopher Andara, Elizabeth Skuza, Anthony Turton, Philip Berger, Garun S Hamilton & Bradley A Edwards

We explored whether increased ventilatory control instability (i.e. loop gain) is responsible for the observed increase in respiratory event frequency in the supine sleeping position in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Loop gain is significantly increased in the supine compared with lateral sleeping position, although the magnitude of change is small.

1670Tuberculosis increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: A nationwide population-based study
Sheng-Huei Wang, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Fu-Huang Lin, Chung-Kan Peng, Chih-Feng Chian & Chih-Hao Shen

This study showed that patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a significantly higher risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD) than healthy control subjects. TB should be considered when evaluating a patient's risk of developing PAD.

1677False-positive breathalyser tests and use of metered-dose inhalers: Does inhalation technique affect test results?
Timothy H Self, Paul J Jones & Christopher W Sands