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Table of Contents for
Volume 20 Issue 1
January 2015

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1The Editor recommends this issue's articles to the reader
See articles, page 66 and page 101
2Celebrating 20 years of Respirology
Peter Eastwood & Lieve Bultynck
5Determining the cause of pulmonary granulomas: A multidimensional process
Marc A Judson
See article, page 115
7Harmful effects of particulate air pollution: Identifying the culprits
Matthew Loxham
See article, page 73
9'To measure is to know' (Lord Kelvin)
Chris Ward & Lena Uller
See article, page 66
Update in Interventional Pulmonology
11Interventional pulmonology: The tipping point
Fabien Maldonado, Eric S Edell, Patrick J Barron & Rex C Yung
Challenges in Drug Development for Chronic Lung Diseases
13Drug development for chronic lung disease - Mission impossible?
Kjetil Ask & Martin R J Kolb
Challenges in Drug Development for Chronic Lung Diseases
15Is there still hope for single therapies: How do we set up experimental systems to efficiently test combination therapies?
Guy F Joos & Esteban C Gabazza
Respiratory Disease: Using Lung Function Measurements to Greater Advantage
24Lung function abnormalities in HIV-infected adults and children
Gregory L Calligaro & Diane M Gray
33Putting lung function and physiology into perspective: cystic fibrosis in adults
Alex Horsley & Salman Siddiqui
46Exercise training combined with psychological interventions for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Louise Wiles, Paul Cafarella & Marie T Williams
56Clinical use of microRNAs as potential non-invasive biomarkers for detecting non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis
Huoqiang Wang, Songnian Wu, Long Zhao, Juan Zhao, Jinjun Liu & Zhihao Wang
Asthma and Allergy
Editor's choice
Distribution of airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma: Relation to airway inflammation
John G Elliot, Robyn L Jones, Michael J Abramson, Francis H Green, Thais Mauad, Karen O McKay, Tony R Bai & Alan L James
See Editorial, page 9
In a large number of asthma cases, we have shown that airway smooth muscle remodelling varies between individuals, and is associated with eosinophilic but not neutrophilic inflammation but is uncommonly confined solely to the small airways
73Differential injurious effects of ambient and traffic-derived particulate matter on airway epithelial cells
Rakesh K Kumar, Alexander M Shadie, Martin P Bucknall, Helen Rutlidge, Linda Garthwaite, Cristan Herbert, Brendan Halliburton, Kristy S Parsons & Peter A B Wark
See Editorial, page 7
The in vitro effects of ambient and traffic-derived particulate matter on airway epithelial cells were compared Ambient particulates, especially coarse particles of 2.5-10μm, induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells, whereas traffic-derived particulates did not The injurious effect of particulate matter may be related to its iron content
80Nontuberculous mycobacteria in diffuse panbronchiolitis
Takahiro Tsuji, Eisaku Tanaka, Ikkoh Yasuda, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Yusuke Kaji, Takehiro Yasuda, Seishu Hashimoto, Moon Hee Hwang, Takashi Hajiro & Yoshio Taguchi
Defects in the mucociliary transport system are assumed to be a predisposing factor to nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection We retrospectively investigated the prevalence of NTM associated with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), which is characterized by mucociliary dysfunction We detected a high prevalence comparable to rates in cystic fibrosis
87Effect of increasing respiratory rate on airway resistance and reactance in COPD patients
Misa Nakagawa, Noboru Hattori, Yoshinori Haruta, Aya Sugiyama, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Kazunori Fujitaka, Hiroshi Murai, Junko Tanaka & Nobuoki Kohno
Airway resistance and reactance were measured with an impulse oscillation system during metronome-paced tachypnoea in COPD patients and healthy controls In COPD patients, tachypnoea resulted in more negative expiratory X5 values In addition, these decreased expiratory X5 values induced by tachypnoea were correlated with the severity of dyspnoea in COPD
95Increased CD8 T-cell granzyme B in COPD is suppressed by treatment with low-dose azithromycin
Sandra Hodge, Greg Hodge, Mark Holmes, Hubertus Jersmann & Paul N Reynolds
In COPD patients, low-dose azithromycin, unlike corticosteroids or n-acetyl cysteine, reduced production of the cytotoxic mediator granzyme B by CD8 T cells from both airway and intra-epithelial compartments This provides further evidence for the application of azithromycin for controlling epithelial cell apoptosis, abnormal airway repair and chronic inflammation in COPD
Editor's choice
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Truls S Ingebrigtsen, Jacob L Marott, Jørgen Vestbo, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jesper Hallas & Peter Lange
We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is associated with COPD exacerbations Our study supports this hypothesis and provides the first prospective analysis showing that this association applies only among those individuals not using acid inhibitory treatment regularly
108Menthol cigarette smoking in the COPDGene cohort: Relationship with COPD, comorbidities and CT metrics
Seoung Ju Park, Marilyn G Foreman, Dawn L Demeo, Surya P Bhatt, Nadia N Hansel, Robert A Wise, Xavier Soler & Russell P Bowler
Little information exists on the effects of menthol cigarette smoking on clinical and radiological characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Our results confirm that menthol cigarettes are not safer than traditional cigarettes and suggest that menthol cigarette smokers may have more frequent severe exacerbations than non-menthol cigarette smokers
Interstitial Lung Disease
115Incidence and aetiologies of pulmonary granulomatous inflammation: A decade of experience
Alia Nazarullah, Robert Nilson, Diego Jose Maselli & Jaishree Jagirdar
See Editorial, page 5
The incidence and atiologies of GLD were evaluated over a 10-year period, providing further epidemiological data on a disease caused by multiple pathologies and with a certain aetiology often undetermined Infectious aetiologies (atypical mycobacteria, coccidiodes) were more common and presented with necrosis The most common non-infectious cause was sarcoidosis
122Telomerase gene mutations and telomere length shortening in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Chinese population
Jinghong Dai, Hourong Cai, Yi Zhuang, Yongzheng Wu, Haiyan Min, Jinheng Li, Yi Shi, Qian Gao & Long Yi
Six novel mutations in the telomerase genes with shorter telomeres were identified for the first time in sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in a Chinese Han population Shorter telomeres and mild thrombocytopaenia could be clues to association with telomerase gene mutation and sporadic IPF
Lung Cancer
129Comparison of objective criteria and expert visual interpretation to classify benign and malignant hilar and mediastinal nodes on 18-F FDG PET/CT
Phan Nguyen, Manoj Bhatt, Farzad Bashirzadeh, Justin Hundloe, Robert Ware, David Fielding & Aravind S Ravi Kumar
FDG PET/CT is widely used for lung cancer mediastinal staging Objective criteria for FDG PET/CT scan analysis have various published thresholds that are not well validated We derived and validated objective criteria from patients at our institution and compared their performance with EVI EBUS results were used as gold standard
Pleural Disease
138Comparison of PNA clamping and direct sequencing for detecting KRAS mutations in matched tumour tissue, cell block, pleural effusion and serum from patients with malignant pleural effusion
Ji Young Kang, Chan Kwon Park, Chang Dong Yeo, Hea Yeon Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Seung Joon Kim, Seok Chan Kim, Young Kyoon Kim, Mi Sun Park & Hyeon Woo Yim
The diagnostic performance of PNA clamping for KRAS mutation was evaluated in samples of matched tumour tissue, cell block, pleural effusion and serum in patients with malignant effusion PNA clamping had a good concordance with conventional direct sequencing for the detection of KRAS mutation, in particular from pleural effusion
147Diagnostic role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in tuberculous pleural effusion
Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chia-Lin Hsu, Li-Ta Keng, Kochung Tsui, Jeng-Feng Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai, Chong-Jen Yu, Li-Na Lee & Kwen-Tay Luh
Early diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion remains difficult Measuring pleural interferon-γ, adenosine deaminase, decoy receptor 3 and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 together can improve the low sensitivity of assaying either interferon-γ or adenosine deaminase alone, and may avoid pleural biopsy which is in some patients a high-risk procedure
Pulmonary Vascular Disease
155Clinical characteristics of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in Koreans
Hyun-Jung Kim, Jae-Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Tae-Sun Shim, Chae-Man Lim, Youn-Suck Koh, Woo-Sung Kim & Sang-Do Lee
This study represents the first survey of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in Koreans The results show that PAVMs were less associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in the Korean population than in Western populations and that treatment of PAVMs with small-diameter feeding vessels should be considered to prevent cerebral complications
Rare Lung Disease
160Clinical features of 280 hospitalized patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Japan
Wakae Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Hideo Yasunaga, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Kazutaka Takami & Takahide Nagase
Our study revealed the clinical features, comorbidities and causes of death in hospitalized patients with LAM Patients with LAM after transplantation had higher activities of daily living scores than those before transplantation, which suggests that lung transplantation could improve the activities of daily life
166Cough during therapeutic thoracentesis: Friend or foe?
Monika Zielinska-Krawczyk, Marcin Michnikowski, Elzbieta M Grabczak, Krzysztof J Palko, Piotr Korczynski, Tomasz Golczewski & Rafal Krenke
169Management of malignant pleural effusion
Graham Simpson & Daniel J Judge
Helen E Davies, Rajesh Thomas, Roslyn Francis & Y C Gary Lee