Dr Robert Kacmarek from Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA, reviewed fundamental principles of mechanical ventilation. He discussed the benefits of new modes of ventilation, and focusing on proportional assist ventilation (PAV) and neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA), comparing advantages and disadvantages of each mode and appropriate clinical settings for each one. He briefly described various indications for mechanical ventilation. The primary principles, he iterated, are to avoid inducing further injury, insure patient-ventilatory synchrony, and maintain adequate gas exchange.
Dr Christer Ström, from Sweden, spoke on mechanical ventilators, focusing on the latest technologies and machines and how these can be utilized in various settings to obtain optimal outcomes. He highlighted how neural control is affected by ventilator settings. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) provides a guide for unloading a patient's respiratory effort and the setting of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). The NAVA method guarantees synchronous ventilator assistance and natural variability, while the patient controls the ventilator, tidal volume and respiratory rate.
Dr Jerry Yu, professor from University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA, presented on the physiological effects of mechanical ventilation.
Dr John Marini from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA, provided insights into ventilator management for patients with COPD. He covered ventilation of airflow obstruction, potential advances in care, and provided useful tips for weaning patients off mechanical ventilation.
Dr Yuanlin Song from Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University presented the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury, outlining the complications of mechanical ventilation and possible prevention strategies. He also provided insights on monitoring during mechanical ventilation, and its importance in ensuring proper use of ventilation and oxygen, to enable proper nutrition to reduce complications and achieve successful weaning.
Dr Kacmarek spoke on how to achieve successful application of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). He compared bi-level pressure and ICU ventilators and discussed the importance of humidification.
Dr Bai delivered a comprehensive overview on conventional respirology support for patients with ARDS, highlighting important topics surrounding the use of mechanical ventilation.