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APSR Respiratory Updates


Dr David CL Lam

APSR Respiratory Updates is a unique publication bringing you the most important clinical research in respiratory medicine. Each month an expert within the APSR will identify and review ten key publications in their field. In addition to a link to the publication, a brief commentary on why the study is important will be provided. This series represents an important initiative of the Education Committee of the APSR. We hope you find it informative and useful in your clinical practice.

Dr David CL Lam

Respiratory Updates (Archive)Contents
Volume 9, Issue 12
(December 2017)

Lung cancer and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

  • Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously treated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: an open-label, multicentre phase 2 trial.
  • Brigatinib in Patients With Crizotinib-Refractory Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized, Multicenter Phase II Trial.
  • Ceritinib versus chemotherapy in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer previously given chemotherapy and crizotinib (ASCEND-5): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.
  • First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-smallcell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.
  • ASCEND-8: A Randomized Phase 1 Study of Ceritinib 450 mg or 600 mg Taken With a Low-Fat Meal Versus 750 mg in Fasted State in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-Rearranged Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
  • Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J-ALEX): an openlabel, randomised phase 3 trial.
  • Alectinib versus Crizotinib in Untreated ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
  • Osimertinib or Platinum-Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.
  • Osimertinib As First-Line Treatment of EGFR Mutation-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Volume 9, Issue 11
(November 2017)

Lung cancer screening/early detection

  • Impact of low-dose CT screening on smoking cessation among high-risk participants in the UK Lung Cancer Screening Trial.
  • Long-term psychosocial outcomes of low-dose CT screening: results of the UK Lung Cancer Screening randomised controlled trial.
  • Exposure to low dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening and risk of cancer: Secondary analysis of trial data and risk-benefit analysis.
  • Multimodal lung cancer screening using the ITALUNG biomarker panel and low dose computed tomography. Results of the ITALUNG biomarker study.
  • Comparing the performance of trained radiographers against experienced radiologists in the UK lung cancer screening (UKLS) trial.
  • The Vancouver Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model: Assessment by Using a Subset of the National Lung Screening Trial Cohort.
  • Extrapulmonary Findings and Malignancies in Participants Screened With Chest CT in the National Lung Screening Trial.
  • Low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening: comparison of performance between annual and biennial screen.
  • Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial: the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval.
  • Risk stratification based on screening history: the NELSON lung cancer screening study.
  • Identifying high risk individuals for targeted lung cancer screening: Independent validation of the PLCOm2012 risk prediction tool.
  • Participant selection for lung cancer screening by risk modelling (the pan-canadian early detection of lung cancer [PanCan] study): A single-arm, prospective study.
Volume 9, Issue 10
(October 2017)

APSR Update in Respiratory Sleep Medicine

  • CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular events in OSA
  • CPAP in patients with OSA and resistant Hypertension: Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
  • Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea: the effect of bariatric surgery after 12 months. A prospective multicentre trial
  • Effect of Home Non-invasive Ventilation with Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomised Clinical Trial
  • A randomised controlled trial of CPAP versus non-invasive ventilation for initial treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Glycemic Control in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index: A European Randomized Trial
  • Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
Volume 9, Issue 9
(September 2017)

APSR Paediatric Updates 2017

  • The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in adolescents
  • STAAR: a randomised controlled trial of electronic adherence monitoring with reminder alarms and feedback to improve clinical outcomes for children with asthma
  • Protracted bacterial bronchitis in children - natural history and risk factors for bronchiectasis
  • Feasibility and safety of substituting lung ultrasonography for chest radiography when diagnosing pneumonia in children - a randomized controlled trial
  • Short- and long-term pulmonary outcome of Palivizumab in children born extremely prematurely
  • Neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions in children initiated on montelukast in real-life practice
  • Breastfeeding, maternal asthma and wheezing in the first year of life: a longitudinal birth cohort study
  • Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1–3 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  • Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in young children with mild persistent asthma
Volume 9, Issue 8
(August 2017)

Updates on Targeted Therapy in NSCLC

  • Osimertinib or Platinum-Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.
  • Acquired EGFR C797S Mutation Mediates Resistance to AZD9291 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Har-boring EGFR T790M.
  • Overcoming EGFR(T790M) and EGFR(C797S) resistance with mutant-selective allosteric inhibitors.
  • A Phase Ib/II Study of Afatinib in Combination with Nimotuzumab in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Pa-tients with Acquired Resistance to Gefitinib or Erlotinib.
  • Dacomitinib versus Gefitinib for the First-Line Treatment of Advanced EGFR Mutation Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ARCHER 1050): a Randomized Open-Label Phase III Trial.
  • Brigatinib in Patients With Crizotinib-Refractory Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized, Multicenter Phase II Trial.
  • Maintenance Erlotinib versus Erlotinib at Disease Progression in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Who Have Not Progressed Following Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (IUNO Study).
  • First-Line Ceritinib versus Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Advanced ALK-Rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ASCEND-4): a Randomised, Open-Label, Phase III Study.
  • Alectinib versus Crizotinib in Patients with ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (J-ALEX): An Open-Label, Randomised Phase 3 Trial.
  • Alectinib versus Crizotinib in Treatment-Naive Advanced ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Result of the Global Phase 3 ALEX study.
  • Alectinib versus Crizotinib in Untreated ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Lorlatinib in Patients (pts) with ALK+ Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) with One or More Prior ALK Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI): a Phase I/II Study.
Volume 9, Issue 7
(July 2017)

Advances in bronchoscopy and interventional techniques

  • Radial endobronchial ultrasound for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Usefulness of endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath and virtual bronchoscopic navigation for ground-glass opacity lesions.
  • Combination of virtual bronchoscopic navigation with conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of peribronchial pulmonary lesions located in the middle third of the lungs.
  • Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy to access lung lesions in 1,000 subjects: first results of the prospective, multicenter NAVIGATE study.
  • Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy for Identifying lung nodules for thoracoscopically resection.
  • Sequential multimodality bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions.
  • Complications of convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a multi-center retrospective study.
  • Endobronchial ultrasound-guided cautery-assisted transbronchial forceps biopsies: safety and sensitivity relative to transbronchial needle aspiration.
  • Diagnostic yield and safety of cryoprobe transbronchial lung biopsy in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Effect of endobronchial coils vs usual care on exercise tolerance in patients with severe emphysema: The RENEW randomized clinical trial.
Volume 9, Issue 6
(June 2017)

APSR Pleural Update 2017

  • Effect of Opioids vs NSAIDS and Larger vs Smaller Chest Tube Size on Pain Control and Pleurodesis Efficacy Among Patients With MPE: The TIME1 RCT.
  • Randomized Trial of Pleural Fluid Drainage Frequency in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions – The ASAP Trial.
  • Bevacizumab for newly diagnosed pleural mesothelioma in the Mesothelioma Avastin Cisplatin Pemetrexed Study (MAPS): a randomized, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.
  • The effect of chemotherapy on health-related quality of life in mesothelioma: results from the SWAMP trial.
  • Malignant pleural fluid from mesothelioma has potent biological activities.
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator Potently Stimulates Pleural Effusion via a Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1-Dependent Mechanism.
  • Pleural Effusions at First ED Encounter Predict Worse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Pneumonia.
  • Non-Malignant Pleural Effusions (NMPE): a prospective study of 356 consecutive unselected patients.
  • Management of Benign Pleural Effusions Using Indwelling Pleural Catheters. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • ERS task force statement: diagnosis and treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
  • Novel imaging detailing the origins of a pneumothorax.
  • A Novel Device for Accurate Chest Tube Insertion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Volume 9, Issue 5
(May 2017)


  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity
  • Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation
  • An asthma-associated IL4R variant exacerbates airway inflammation by promoting conversion of regulatory T cells to TH17-like cells
  • Increased mitochondrial arginine metabolism supports bioenergetics in asthma
  • Targeting integrin alpha5beta1 ameliorates severe airway hyperresponsiveness in experimental asthma
  • Epithelial tethering of MUC5AC-rich mucus impairs mucociliary transport in asthma
  • Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by DENND1B in TH2 cells and allergic disease
  • Type I interferon restricts type 2 immunopathology through the regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells
  • DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma
  • Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition in airway epithelium protects against allergic asthma
  • Role for NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated, IL-1beta-dependent responses in severe, steroid-resistant asthma
Volume 9, Issue 4
(April 2017)

APSR Respiratory VTE Update

  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
  • Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel report.
  • Prevalence of pulmonary embolism among patients hospitalized for syncope.
  • A new prognostic strategy for adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism eligible for outpatient therapy.
  • Pathways for outpatient management of venous thromboembolism in a UK centre.
  • Prediction of bleeding events in patients with venous thromboembolism on stable anticoagulation treatment.
  • Clinical impact and course of major bleeding with rivaroxaban and vitamin K antagonists.
  • Cohort study on the management of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism aimed at the safety of stopping anticoagulation therapy in patients cured from cancer.
  • Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study.
  • Factors that predict thrombosis in relatives of patients with venous thromboembolism.
Volume 9, Issue 3
(March 2017)

Endobronchial Ultrasonography (EBUS)

  • Plasma Metabolomics Implicate Modified Transfer RNAs and Altered Bioenergetics in the Outcome of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
  • Ultrathin Bronchoscopy with Multimodal Devices for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Randomized Trial
  • Pulmonologist-performed transoesophageal sampling for lung cancer staging using an endobronchial ultrasound video-bronchoscope: an Australian experience
  • The predictive value of endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath in the diagnosis of the histologic subtypes of lung cancer
  • Endobronchial ultrasonography with guide sheath versus computed tomography guided transthoracic needle biopsy for peripheral pulmonary lesions: a propensity score matched analysis
  • Utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in diagnosing nonspecific inflammatory intrathoracic lymphadenitis
  • Cell block samples from endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration provide sufficient material for ancillary testing in lung cancer – a quaternary referral centre experience
  • Accuracy and consequences of same-day, invasive lung cancer workup – a retrospective study in patients treated with surgical resection
  • Bispectral Index Monitoring Reduces the Dosage of Propofol and Adverse Events in Sedation for Endobronchial Ultrasound
  • Conventional Transbronchial Needle Aspiration Versus Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration, With or Without Rapid On-Site Evaluation, for the Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Pulmonologist-performed Per-Esophageal Needle Aspiration of Parenchymal Lung Lesions Using an EBUS Bronchoscope: Diagnostic Utility and Safety
Volume 9, Issue 2
(February 2017)


I. Dyspnoea mechanisms, assessment, prevalence and clinical importance
  • An Official Thoracic Society Statement: Update on the mechanism, assessment and management of dyspnea
  • Prevalence of dyspnoea differs between countries
  • Dyspnoea is an independent predictor of mortality
  • Proactive identification and management of chronic refractory breathlessness has ethical and potentially, legal implications
  • Assessing multidimensional aspects of dyspnoea
II. Comprehensive management of dyspnoea
  • People with advanced disease report a range of self-management strategies to cope with episodic breathlessness; many of which were no/ low cost and required minimal resources
  • Five minutes exposure to a hand-held fan provided over 30 minutes relief of breathlessness for over 50% of people with refractory breathlessness at rest
  • Activity-related breathlessness in COPD; support for efficacy of bronchodilators and, in selected patients, low dose oral opioids
  • A predominantly home based, multidisciplinary Breathlessness Intervention Service (BIS) combining non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies provided relief from breathlessness distress in people with advanced cancer
Volume 9, Issue 1
(January 2017)

Pulmonary Hypertension

  • Plasma Metabolomics Implicate Modified Transfer RNAs and Altered Bioenergetics in the Outcome of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
  • Dynamic Risk Stratification of Patient Long-Term Outcome After Pulmonary Endarterectomy: Results From the United Kingdom National Cohort.
  • Initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a secondary analysis of the results from the randomised, controlled AMBITION study.
  • The prognostic impact of thyroid function in pulmonary hypertension.
  • Endovascular treatment for chronic pulmonary hypertension: a focus on angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
  • MicroRNA-140-5p and SMURF1 regulate pulmonary arterial hypertension.
  • BMPR2 mutations and survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension: an individual participant data me-ta-analysis.
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Current Perspective on Established and Emerging Molecular Ge-netic Defects.
  • Diagnosis, Treatment, and Clinical Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in the Contempo-rary Era: A Review.
  • Treprostinil Administered to Treat Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Using a Fully Implantable Pro-grammable Intravascular Delivery System: Results of the DelIVery for PAH Trial.
Respiratory Updates (current)
Respiratory Updates (archives)
2017 Archive
  • Lung cancer and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
  • Lung cancer screening/early detection
  • APSR Update in Respiratory Sleep Medicine
  • APSR Paediatric Updates 2017
  • Updates on Targeted Therapy in NSCLC
  • Advances in bronchoscopy and interventional techniques
  • APSR Pleural Update 2017
  • Asthma
  • APSR Respiratory VTE Update
  • Endobronchial Ultrasonography (EBUS)
  • Dyspnoea
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
2016 Archive
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD
  • Lung Development and Regeneration
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Update in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Lung cancer immunotherapy
  • Pneumonia
  • Updates in Pulmonary Function Testing 2012-2015
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Updates on Bronchoscopy and Interventional Pulmonology
2015 Archive
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
  • Tobacco/Smoking Cessation
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Mesothelioma
  • Bronchiectasis
  • APSR air pollution update
  • Induced Sputum 2015
  • Pneumothorax: Evolving Indications for Surgery
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Cellular and molecular biology of the lung
  • Quantitative Imaging of the Respiratory System
2014 Archive
  • COPD
  • Tuberculosis
  • Environmental and Occupational Health
  • APSR Paediatric Updates 2014
  • Pneumoconiosis and other related conditions
  • Sleep Medicine
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Pleural Diseases
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Venous Thromboembolism
2013 Archive
  • Fukuchi Award and Young Investigator Award Abstracts
  • Mesothelioma
  • Cystic Fibrosis and Bronchiectasis
  • Lung transplantation
  • Air Pollution
  • Induced sputum
  • Respirology Virtual Issues
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Monitoring free serum IgE in severe asthma patients treated with omalizumab
  • Lung Cancer Screening
  • Tuberculosis
  • Current Trends in Lung Cancer Surgery
2012 Archive
  • Progress of Pulmonary Function Testing in 2011/12
  • IPF trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Respiratory infections other than tuberculosis
  • Cell and Molecular Biology in Respirology
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Quantitative imaging of airways
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Community and Public Health
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung disease
  • Tobacco/Smoking cessation
2011 Archive
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Sleep
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Influenza
  • Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Pleural Diseases
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pulmonary and Systemic Venous Thromboembolism
2010 Archive
  • Community and Public Health
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tobacco/smoking cessation
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Sleep
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Pleural diseases
  • Asthma
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Interstitial Lung Disease
  • COPD & asthma: Differences & similarities
2009 Archive
  • Influenza
  • Lung Cancer
  • Venous Thromboembolism
Respiratory Research Review (archives)
2008 Archive
2007 Archive
2006 Archive

Disclaimer: The above publications are not intended as a replacement for regular medical education. The comments are an interpretation of the published study and reflect the opinion of the writer rather than those of the research group or scientific journal. It is suggested readers review the full trial data before forming a final conclusion on its merits.

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