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APSR Respiratory Updates

(Latest issues)

Dr David CL Lam

APSR Respiratory Updates is a unique publication bringing you the most important clinical research in respiratory medicine. Each month an expert within the APSR will identify and review ten key publications in their field. In addition to a link to the publication, a brief commentary on why the study is important will be provided. This series represents an important initiative of the Education Committee of the APSR. We hope you find it informative and useful in your clinical practice.

Dr David CL Lam

Respiratory Updates (archives)
2017 (current)
Respiratory UpdatesContents
(December 2016) There was no Respiratory Updates in December 2016
Volume 8, Issue 11
(November 2016)

Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD

  • Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Policy Statement: Enhancing Implementation, Use, and Delivery of Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
  • Smallest worthwhile effect of land-based and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD.
  • Longer versus shorter duration of rehabilitation following lung transplantation: A randomised trial.
  • Home-based rehabilitation for COPD using minimal resources: a randomised, controlled equivalence trial.
  • Do self-management interventions in COPD patients work and which patients benefit most? An individual patient data meta-analysis.
  • A randomized controlled trial of telephone-mentoring with home-based walking preceding rehabilitation in COPD.
  • Efficacy of an mHealth intervention to stimulate physical activity in COPD patients after pulmonary rehabilitation.
  • Physical frailty and pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD: a prospective cohort study.
  • Long-term exercise maintenance in COPD via telerehabilitation: a two-year pilot study.
  • The minimal important difference in physical activity in patients with COPD.
  • One-legged cycle training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A pragmatic study of implementation to pulmonary rehabilitation.
Volume 8, Issue 10
(October 2016)

Lung Development and Regeneration

  • Crumbs3-Mediated Polarity Directs Airway Epithelial Cell Fate through the Hippo Pathway Effector Yap
  • A Retinoic Acid-Hedgehog Cascade Coordinates Mesoderm-Inducing Signals and Endoderm Competence during Lung Specification
  • In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids
  • Directed Induction of Functional Multi-ciliated Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Spheroids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Preconditioning allows engraftment of mouse and human embryonic lung cells, enabling lung repair in mice
  • Hedgehog actively maintains adult lung quiescence and regulates repair and regeneration
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells function as airway sensors to control lung immune response
  • Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
  • Engineering pulmonary vasculature in decellularized rat and human lungs
  • Regenerative Potential of Human Airway Stem Cells in Lung Epithelial Engineering
  • In Vivo Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Two Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Alveolar-like Stem Cell-derived Myb(-) Macrophages Promote Recovery and Survival in Airway Disease
Volume 8, Issue 9
(September 2016)


  • Efficacy and safety of long-term sirolimus therapy in Asian patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Official American Thoracic Society and Japanese Respiratory Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Diagnosis and Management.
  • A total pleural covering for lymphangioleiomyomatosis prevents pneumothorax recurrence.
  • Incidence of Pneumothorax in Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Undergoing Pulmonary Function and Exercise Testing.
  • Isolation of individual cellular components from lung tissues of patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Bronchial involvement in advanced stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis: histopathologic and molecular analyses.
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a controlled clinical trial.
  • Wild type mesenchymal cells contribute to the lung pathology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Genetic heterogeneity of circulating cells from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis with and without lung transplantation.
  • Sustained effects of sirolimus on lung function and cystic lung lesions in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Sirolimus decreases circulating lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Exonic mutations of TSC2/TSC1 are common but not seen in all sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Volume 8, Issue 8
(August 2016)

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

  • Gender differences in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Protective cardiovascular effect of sleep apnea severity in obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Health use in individuals with obesity and chronic hypoxemia treated for sleep disordered breathing
  • Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Postoperative Complications in Patients With Unrecognized Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Undergoing Elective Noncardiac Surgery
  • Positive airway pressure improves nocturnal beat-to-beat blood pressure surges in obesity hypoventilation syndrome with obstructive sleep apnea
  • Efficacy of Different Treatment Alternatives for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. Pickwick Study
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in Japan and independent determinants of arterial carbon dioxide levels
Volume 8, Issue 7
(July 2016)

Update in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Epidemiology, Patterns of Care, and Mortality for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Intensive Care Units in 50 Countries
  • A Clinical Classification of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome for Predicting Outcome and Guiding Medical Therapy
  • Driving pressure and survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Open lung approach for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a pilot, randomized controlled trial
  • High-Flow Oxygen through Nasal Cannula in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
  • Timing of Intubation and Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Timing of low tidal volume ventilation and intensive care unit mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective cohort study
  • Critical care ultrasonography differentiates ARDS, pulmonary edema, and other causes in the early course of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure
  • The effect of intravenous interferon-beta-1a (FP-1201) on lung CD73 expression and on acute respiratory distress syndrome mortality: an open-label study
  • The association between acute respiratory distress syndrome, delirium, and in-hospital mortality in intensive care unit patients
  • Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Type III procollagen is a reliable marker of ARDS-associated lung fibroproliferation
Volume 8, Issue 6
(June 2016)

Lung Transplantation

  • Weight loss prior to lung transplantation is associated with improved survival
  • Effects of Recipient Age and Diagnosis on Health-Related Quality of Life Benefit of Lung Transplantation
  • Influence of donor and recipient age in lung transplantation
  • Registry ISHLT Report 2015: Early Graft Failure
  • Continued Utility of Single-Lung Transplantation in Select Populations: COPD
  • Survival in Sensitized Lung Transplant Recipients With Perioperative Desensitization
  • Outcome of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge To Lung Transplantation: An Institutional Experience and Literature Review
  • International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Donation After Circulatory Death Registry Report
  • Lung Transplantation With Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death Donors and the Impact of Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion
  • Nonspecific Immunoglobulin Replacement in Lung Transplantation Recipients With Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Cohort Study Taking Into Account Propensity Score and Immortal Time Bias
Volume 8, Issue 5
(May 2016)

Lung cancer immunotherapy

  • Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomized controlled trial.
  • Safety and antitumour activity of durvalumab plus tremelimumab in non-small cell lung cancer: a multicentre phase 1b study
  • Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial
  • Phase I study of ipilimumab in phased combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in Japanese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer
  • Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer
  • Predictive markers for the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in lung cancer
  • Programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression is associated with a favourable immune microenvironment and better overall survival in stage I pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Cellular immunotherapy as maintenance therapy prolongs the survival of the patients with small cell lung cancer
  • Dendritic cell vaccine and cytokine-induced killer cell therapy for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer
  • Guidelines for the evaluation of immune therapy activity in solid tumors: immune-related response criteria
Volume 8, Issue 4
(April 2016)


  • Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults
  • Association between hospitalization with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia and prior receipt of influenza vaccination
  • Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. adults
  • Viral etiology of community-acquired pneumonia among adolescents and adults with mild or moderate severity and its relation to age and severity
  • Comparative treatment failure rates of respiratory fluoroquinolones or β-lactam + macrolide versus β-lactam alone in the treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients: an analysis of a nationally representative claims database
  • Corticosteroid therapy for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine against invasive disease and hospital-treated pneumonia among people aged ≥65 years: a retrospective case-control study
  • Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults
  • Association of guideline-based antimicrobial therapy and outcomes in healthcare-associated pneumonia
  • Risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients with pneumonia who receive appropriate initial antibiotics: an observational cohort study
Volume 8, Issue 3
(March 2016)

Updates in Pulmonary Function Testing 2012-2015

Pulmonary function testing has been a well-known and relatively accessible test for all specialists in respirology for more than half a century. Since the beginning of the 21st century, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology and high throughput gene analysis technologies have progressively led us to a new and exciting era of modern personalized medicine. Yet, lung function testing still keeps its value as a practical, easily performed and most valuable tool helping respiratory physicians to better characterize patients' phenotypes based on individual respiratory function, that now includes quantitative and qualitative assessment of breath. In this short review, we will attempt to briefly summarize the most recent developments in this field.
  • Spirometry
  • Advances in measurement of lung diffusing capacity
  • Inert gas washout measurement
  • Fractional concentration of nitric oxide (no) in exhaled breath (feno)
  • Breathomics in lung disease – a new method in pulmonary function testing
Volume 8, Issue 2
(February 2016)

Pulmonary Aspergillosis

  • ImmunoPET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo.
  • Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: rationale and clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management.
  • Putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a matched cohort study.
  • Blood basophil activation is a reliable biomarker of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.
  • A randomised trial of glucocorticoids in acute-stage allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis complicating asthma.
  • The basophil surface marker CD203c identifies Aspergillus species sensitization in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • Evolution of the Immune Response to Chronic Airway Colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphae.
  • Prevalence and mechanism of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus in a referral chest hospital in Delhi, India and an update of the situation in Asia.
  • Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
  • Estimation of the burden of chronic and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis in India.
Volume 8, Issue 1
(January 2016)

Updates on Bronchoscopy and Interventional Pulmonology

  • Diagnostic Yield and Complications of Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Lung Lesions: Results of the AQuIRE Registry.
  • Evaluation of Tracheobronchomalacia by Dynamic Flexible Bronchoscopy: A Pilot Study
  • Differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymph nodes visible at EBUS using grey-scale textural analysis
  • Comparison of cytologic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration using needle suction versus no suction
  • Long-term follow-up after bronchoscopic lung volume reduction treatment with coils in patients with severe emphysema
  • Pleuroscopic Pleurodesis Combined With Tunneled Pleural Catheter for Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Prospective Observational Study
  • Meta-analysis of 21- Versus 22-G Aspiration Needle During Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration
  • Pleuroscopic cryoprobe biopsies of the pleura: A feasibility and safety study
  • Left and Right Lung Asynchrony as a Physiological Indicator for Unilateral Bronchial Obstruction in Interventional Bronchoscopy
  • Effect of Acute Hypercapnia on Outcomes and Predictive Risk Factors for Complications among Patients Receiving Bronchoscopic Interventions under General Anesthesia
Respiratory Updates (archives)
2015 Archive
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
  • Tobacco/Smoking Cessation
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Mesothelioma
  • Bronchiectasis
  • APSR air pollution update
  • Induced Sputum 2015
  • Pneumothorax: Evolving Indications for Surgery
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Cellular and molecular biology of the lung
  • Quantitative Imaging of the Respiratory System
2014 Archive
  • COPD
  • Tuberculosis
  • Environmental and Occupational Health
  • APSR Paediatric Updates 2014
  • Pneumoconiosis and other related conditions
  • Sleep Medicine
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Pleural Diseases
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Venous Thromboembolism
2013 Archive
  • Fukuchi Award and Young Investigator Award Abstracts
  • Mesothelioma
  • Cystic Fibrosis and Bronchiectasis
  • Lung transplantation
  • Air Pollution
  • Induced sputum
  • Respirology Virtual Issues
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Monitoring free serum IgE in severe asthma patients treated with omalizumab
  • Lung Cancer Screening
  • Tuberculosis
  • Current Trends in Lung Cancer Surgery
2012 Archive
  • Progress of Pulmonary Function Testing in 2011/12
  • IPF trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Respiratory infections other than tuberculosis
  • Cell and Molecular Biology in Respirology
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Quantitative imaging of airways
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Community and Public Health
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung disease
  • Tobacco/Smoking cessation
2011 Archive
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Sleep
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Influenza
  • Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Pleural Diseases
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pulmonary and Systemic Venous Thromboembolism
2010 Archive
  • Community and Public Health
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tobacco/smoking cessation
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Sleep
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Pleural diseases
  • Asthma
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Interstitial Lung Disease
  • COPD & asthma: Differences & similarities
2009 Archive
  • Influenza
  • Lung Cancer
  • Venous Thromboembolism
Respiratory Research Review (archives)
2008 Archive
2007 Archive
2006 Archive

Disclaimer: The above publications are not intended as a replacement for regular medical education. The comments are an interpretation of the published study and reflect the opinion of the writer rather than those of the research group or scientific journal. It is suggested readers review the full trial data before forming a final conclusion on its merits.

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