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APSR Respiratory Updates


Dr David CL Lam

APSR Respiratory Updates is a unique publication bringing you the most important clinical research in respiratory medicine. Each month an expert within the APSR will identify and review ten key publications in their field. In addition to a link to the publication, a brief commentary on why the study is important will be provided. This series represents an important initiative of the Education Committee of the APSR. We hope you find it informative and useful in your clinical practice.

Dr David CL Lam

Respiratory Updates (archives)
2017 (current)
2016 Archive
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD
  • Lung Development and Regeneration
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Update in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Lung cancer immunotherapy
  • Pneumonia
  • Updates in Pulmonary Function Testing 2012-2015
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Updates on Bronchoscopy and Interventional Pulmonology
2015 Archive
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
  • Tobacco/Smoking Cessation
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Mesothelioma
  • Bronchiectasis
  • APSR air pollution update
  • Induced Sputum 2015
  • Pneumothorax: Evolving Indications for Surgery
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Cellular and molecular biology of the lung
  • Quantitative Imaging of the Respiratory System
Respiratory UpdatesContents
Volume 6, Issue 12
(December 2014)


  • Simvastatin for the prevention of exacerbations in moderate-to severe COPD
  • Tiotropium respimat inhaler and the risk of death in COPD
  • Safety of benzodiazepines and opioids in very severe respiratory disease: national prospective study
  • Effect of β blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records
  • Minimum clinically important difference for the COPD Assessment Test: a prospective analysis
  • Twice daily N-acetylcysteine 600 mg for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PANTHEON): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial
  • Once-daily indacaterol versus tiotropium for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (INVIGORATE): a randomised, blinded, parallel-group study
  • Risk factors and comorbidities in the preclinical stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Outgrowth of the bacterial airway microbiome after rhinovirus exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease
  • Clinical features and determinants of COPD exacerbation in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study
Volume 6, Issue 11
(November 2014)


  • Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults
  • Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Association between HIV/AIDS and Multi-Drug Resistance Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Linezolid in the treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A delivered by aerosol in BCG-vaccinated healthy adults: a phase 1, double-blind, randomised controlled trial
  • Aspartate decarboxylase (PanD) as a new target of pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Culture Conversion with Bedaquiline
  • Four-Month Moxifloxacin-Based Regimens for Drug-Sensitive Tuberculosis
  • A Trial of Mass Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis Control
  • Detection of Mutations in rpob Gene of Clinically Isolated M. tuberculosis by DNA Sequencing
Volume 6, Issue 10
(October 2014)

Environmental and Occupational Health

  • Familial malignant mesothelioma: A population-based study in Central Italy (1980-2012)
  • Genetic variants associated with increased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a genome-wide association study
  • Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma: clustering in a Portuguese family with a germline BAP1 mutation
  • Specific inhalation challenge in the diagnosis of occupational asthma: consensus statement
  • Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort: the strong heart study
  • Nickel accumulation in lung tissues is associated with increased risk of p53 mutation in lung cancer patients
  • Chest computed tomography screening for lung cancer in asbestos occupational exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts
  • The effects of PM2.5 and its components from indoor and outdoor sources on cough and wheeze symptoms in asthmatic children
  • Pesticides and other occupational exposures are associated with airway obstruction: the Life Lines cohort study
  • Combined effect of smoking and occupational exposure to dusts, gases or fumes on the incidence of COPD.
Volume 6, Issue 9
(September 2014)

APSR Paediatric Updates 2014

  • Procalcitonin Guidance to Reduce Antibiotic Treatment of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children and Adolescents (ProPAED): A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children
  • Three Clinically Distinct Chronic Pediatric Airway Infections Share a Common Core Microbiota
  • Long term azithromycin for Indigenous children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis or chronic suppu-rative lung disease (Bronchiectasis Intervention Study): a multi-centre, double-blind randomised controlled
  • Prenatal vitamin D supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial
  • Nasogastric hydration versus intravenous hydration for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomised trial
  • 7% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry in Children
  • A cough algorithm for chronic cough in children: a multicentre, randomized controlled study
  • Oseltamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments
Volume 6, Issue 8
(August 2014)

Pneumoconiosis and other related conditions

  • Coal mine dust lung disease – New lessons from old exposure
  • Validation of the international labour office digitized standard images for recognition and classification of radiographs of pneumoconiosis
  • Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for lung cancer in relationship to silica exposure: a 44-year cohort study of 34,018 workers
  • Asbestos, asbestosis, smoking, and lung cancer – New findings from the North American insulator cohort
  • Chest computed tomography screening for lung cancer in asbestos occupational exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Mesothelioma risk after 40 years since first exposure to asbestos: a pooled analysis
  • Pleural mesothelioma and occupational coexposure to asbestos, mineral wool, and silica
  • Occupational and non-occupational attributable risk of asbestos exposure for malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • Pleural plaques and their effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners
  • Pleural plaques and the risk of pleural mesothelioma
  • Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study
  • Exposure to chrysotile mining dust and digestive cancer mortality in a Chinese miner/miller cohort
Volume 6, Issue 7
(July 2014)

Sleep Medicine

  • Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
  • Comparison of Pregabalin with Pramipexole for Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Patients With Typical Atrial Flutter – Prevalence and Impact on Arrhythmia Control Outcome
  • Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Cancer Incidence in a Large Multicentre Spanish Co-hort
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Postoperative Outcomes After Elective Surgery – Analysis of the Nation-wide Inpatient Sample
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and the Risk of Sudden cardiac Death: A Longitudinal Study of 10,701 Adults
  • Sleep Drive Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain
  • Diagnostic Predictors of Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Sleep Disordered Breathing
  • Impact of Different Backup Rates on the Efficacy of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Effect of CPAP on Blood Pressure in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Resistant Hypertension: The HIPARCO Randomized Clinical Trial
  • Effects of maternal obstructive sleep apnoea on fetal growth: a prospective cohort study
Volume 6, Issue 6
(June 2014)

Critical Care Medicine

  • Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • The Beta agonist lung injury trial prevention – A randomized controlled trial
  • A randomized controlled trial of peripheral blood mononuclear cell depletion in experimental human lung inflammation
  • Exploring the heterogeneity of effects of corticosteroids on acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • The effect of intravenous interferon-beta-1a (FP-1201) on lung CD73 expression and on acute respiratory distress syndrome mortality: an open-label study
  • ABO Blood Type A is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in Caucasians following both major trauma and severe sepsis
  • The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters
  • Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness
  • Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study
  • Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit
Volume 6, Issue 5
(May 2014)

Interstitial Lung Diseases

  • An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pulmonary fibrosis
  • Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease
  • MUC5B promoter polymorphism and interstitial lung abnormalities
  • Serum VEGF-D a concentration as a biomarker of lymphangioleiomyomatosis severity and treatment re-sponse: a prospective analysis of the Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy of Si-rolimus (MILES) trial
  • Detection of alveolar fibrocytes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis
  • Restrictive allograft syndrome post lung transplantation is characterized by pleuroparenchymal fibroelasto-sis
  • Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function
  • RAGE is a nucleic acid receptor that promotes inflammatory responses to DNA
  • A progression-free end-point for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis trials: lessons from cancer
Volume 6, Issue 4
(April 2014)

Pleural Diseases

  • Simple aspiration and drainage and intrapleural minocycline pleurodesis versus simple aspiration and drainage for the initial treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: an open-label, parallel-group, prospective, randomised, controlled trial
  • Breath-hold after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle decreased the rate of pneumothorax in CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy
  • Influence of previous use of inhaled corticoids on the development of pleural effusion in community-acquired pneumonia
  • A clinical score (RAPID) to identify those at risk of poor outcome at presentation with pleural infection
  • Clinical outcomes of indwelling pleural catheter-related pleural infections: an international multicentre study
  • Successful use of indwelling tunneled catheters for the management of effusions in children with advanced cancer
  • Interplay of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Murine Models of Malignant Pleural Effusion
  • Pleural lavage cytology: Where do we stand?
  • A diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma can be made by effusion cytology: results of a 20 year audit
Volume 6, Issue 3
(March 2014)


  • TH2, allergy and group 2 innate lymphoid cells
  • IL-4 confers resistance to IL-27-mediated suppression on CD4+ T cells by impairing signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling
  • The effects of airway microbiome on corticosteroid responsiveness in asthma
  • Dupilumab in persistent asthma with elevated eosinophil levels
  • Randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate chronic dosing effects of propranolol in asthma
  • Elevated sputum interleukin-5 and submucosal eosinophilia in obese individuals with severe asthma
  • Use of continuous positive airway pressure reduces airway reactivity in adults with asthma
  • A phase II placebo-controlled study of tralokinumab in moderate-to-severe asthma
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits T Helper cell type 9 differentiation during allergic lung inflammation via down-regulation of IL-17RB
  • Transcriptome analysis reveals upregulation of bitter taste receptors in severe asthmatics
  • Inhibition of the asthmatic allergen challenge response by the CRTH2 antagonist OC000459
  • Statins enhance the effects of corticosteroids on the balance between regulatory T cells and Th17 cells
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress influences bronchial asthma pathogenesis by modulating nuclear factor κB activation
  • Production of serotonin by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and release via platelets contribute to allergic airway inflammation
  • Diesel exhaust particle induction of IL-17A contributes to severe asthma
  • Bronchial thermoplasty: Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma
  • Deficient glucocorticoid induction of anti-inflammatory genes in nasal polyp fibroblasts of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin intolerance
  • Rhinovirus infection causes steroid resistance in airway epithelium through nuclear factor κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation
  • Effects of benralizumab on airway eosinophils in asthmatic patients with sputum eosinophilia
  • Viral and bacterial infection in acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of readmission
  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 14 and its enzyme activity regulates T(H)2 differentiation and allergic airway disease
  • Programmed cell death ligand 2 regulates TH9 differentiation and induction of chronic airway hyperreactivity
  • IL-17A inhibits airway reactivity induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection during allergic airway inflammation
Volume 6, Issue 2
(February 2014)

Lung Cancer

  • Complications associated with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a nationwide survey by the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy
  • Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer
  • Erlotinib versus docetaxel as second-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and wild-type EGFR tumours (TAILOR): a randomised controlled trial
  • Prediction of survival by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy: results of the ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235 trial
  • Results of initial low-dose computed tomographic screening for lung cancer.
    Results of the two incidence screenings in the National Lung Screening Trial
  • Selection criteria for lung-cancer screening.
    Probability of cancer in pulmonary nodules detected on first screening CT
  • Molecular testing guideline for selection of lung cancer patients for EGFR and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors: guideline from the College of American Pathologists, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Association for Molecular Pathology
  • Virtual bronchoscopic navigation combined with ultrathin bronchoscopy
  • Mutational heterogeneity in cancer and the search for new cancer-associated genes
Volume 6, Issue 1
(January 2014)

Venous Thromboembolism

  • Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis
  • Outpatient versus inpatient treatment for patients with acute pulmonary embolism: an international, open-label, randomised, noninferiority trial
  • Selective D-dimer testing for diagnosis of a first suspected episode of deep vein thrombosis: a randomized trial
  • Potential of an age adjusted D-dimer cutoff value to improve the exclusion of pulmonary embolism in older patients: a retrospective analysis of three large cohorts
  • Management consensus guidance for the use of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor
  • Effectiveness and safety of novel oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin K-antagonists in the treatment of acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism – a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Thrombolytic therapy for submassive pulmonary embolus? PRO viewpoint.
    Thrombolysis for acute submassive pulmonary embolism: CON viewpoint
  • Aspirin for preventing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism
  • Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism.
    Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism.
    Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism
  • Influence of preceding length of anticoagulant treatment and initial presentation of venous thromboembolism on risk of recurrence after stopping treatment: analysis of individual participants' data from seven trials
Respiratory Updates (archives)
2013 Archive
  • Fukuchi Award and Young Investigator Award Abstracts
  • Mesothelioma
  • Cystic Fibrosis and Bronchiectasis
  • Lung transplantation
  • Air Pollution
  • Induced sputum
  • Respirology Virtual Issues
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Monitoring free serum IgE in severe asthma patients treated with omalizumab
  • Lung Cancer Screening
  • Tuberculosis
  • Current Trends in Lung Cancer Surgery
2012 Archive
  • Progress of Pulmonary Function Testing in 2011/12
  • IPF trials and Sarcoidosis
  • Respiratory infections other than tuberculosis
  • Cell and Molecular Biology in Respirology
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Quantitative imaging of airways
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Community and Public Health
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung disease
  • Tobacco/Smoking cessation
2011 Archive
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Sleep
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Influenza
  • Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Pleural Diseases
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pulmonary and Systemic Venous Thromboembolism
2010 Archive
  • Community and Public Health
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tobacco/smoking cessation
  • Paediatric lung disease
  • Sleep
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchoscopy & Interventional Techniques
  • Pleural diseases
  • Asthma
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Interstitial Lung Disease
  • COPD & asthma: Differences & similarities
2009 Archive
  • Influenza
  • Lung Cancer
  • Venous Thromboembolism
Respiratory Research Review (archives)
2008 Archive
2007 Archive
2006 Archive

Disclaimer: The above publications are not intended as a replacement for regular medical education. The comments are an interpretation of the published study and reflect the opinion of the writer rather than those of the research group or scientific journal. It is suggested readers review the full trial data before forming a final conclusion on its merits.

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